- Discuss the reasons behind rise of revolutionism.
- Discuss the impacts of it.
The emergence of revolutionary ideology in India during the late nineteenth and early twentieth century was the result of several internal and external influences working on the minds of the youth. Early phase of revolutionary movement in India was in Bengal, Maharashtra, Punjab, U.P., Orissa, Bihar and Madras provinces, but it predominantly operated in Bengal, Maharashtra and Punjab.
- Nationalism among youth: Most vital factor which contributed to the spirit of nationalism among the countrymen was the ‘economic exploitation’ of Indians by the British Government and the Partition of Bengal.
- Failure of Congress leadership: Younger element was not ready to retreat after the decline of national militancy phase. Fallout of Swadeshi and Boycott Movement was the immediate reason.
- Government repression left no peaceful avenues open for the protest.
- Ideological appeal of ideas: Freedom through revolution, heroic action, supreme sacrifice, Assassinate unpopular British officials, strike terror in hearts of rulers and arouse people to expel the British with force attracted the new nationalists. In this they were inspired from the individual heroic action of Irish nationalists or Russian nihilists.
- The era of revolutionary terrorism began and very soon secret societies of the revolutionaries came up all over the country. The Anusilan Samiti created revolutionary centres all over India. It had its impact on the Congress strategy to involve the youths in the short term programme of rural reconstruction.
- Sacrifices of revolutionaries aroused the emotions of the Indian people which helped in building up of national consciousness which certainly contributed to gaining independence.
- But, it could not mobilize the masses. In fact, it had no base among the people. They believed in individual heroism.
- With the death of Chandrasekhar Azad in 1931, the revolutionary movement virtually came to an end in Punjab, U.P. and Bihar. Surya Sen’s martyrdom also marked an end to the terrorist activity in Bengal. A large number of revolutionaries turned to Marxism.
Although the revolutionary movement failed, it made a valuable contribution to the growth of nationalism in India.