How to Crack UPSC Exam?
Having a proper study plan and a well-articulated strategy becomes quintessential for an IAS aspirant to get through the Civil Services Exam. Here we put across some success strategies which have been utilized by our previous year Toppers. You may ingrain a few from amongst the following to excel in the IAS exam. The contents include a strategy for UPSC Prelims as well as a strategy for UPSC Mains.
Following a right strategy, which works for you, is of great significance to crack the Preliminary stage of this examination.
Gateway to Main Exam
You can write the Main exam (2nd stage of the process) only upon clearing the Preliminary exam (1st stage). Underestimating the significance of UPSC Prelims would end the journey even before it has started. Less than 3% of the candidates who sit for prelims actually make it to the Main Exam by getting over the cut-off line. In the recent years, the ‘Prelims Hurdle’ needs more effort to get through than Main Exam.
Many serious candidates lose out in the Prelims stage itself as they will have focused too much on planning for beyond Prelims.
Focus on Prelims: Go with the UPSC cycle
In the months that fall between January and May, devote at least 70% of your time on Prelims Topics and solving the questions from previous Years and analysing them. Also make sure that you are able to complete the paper in 1 hour and 40 mins.
Such an emphasis on Prelims during the above prescribed months will be clearly in sync with the UPSC civil services Exam cycle.
Need of a strategy
To clear this exam, the candidate has to have a cogent and a coherent i.e, a right strategy. Often, candidates who put in the hard-work as well as the candidates who are academically strong, find this first stage of Preliminary Exam as difficult encounter. The sole reason behind this inability to realise their potential is the lack of or adoption of a strategy that doesn’t suit the person in question.
Here are some of the strategies whose adoption might come in handy. You may call them Success/Winning strategies. You may ingrain one of them as a strategy or make a combination that really works for you. But always keep in mind that others’ strategies, including topper’s strategies, do not completely work for you. A simple logic behind this is that there exist Individual differences—be it intellectually, emotionally, socially or otherwise.
Success Strategy 1 – Gain insights from Previous Year Papers
To get an idea about the Exam, it essential for you to go about all the Previous year papers, especially post 2011. This gives you some understanding about the trends in questioning.
Further analysis of each question is suggested because such an exercise will guide your study habits towards those concepts and points on the lines of which UPSC has prepared the questions and the statements that ensue.
Success Strategy 2 – Run with the Test Series
You can just follow Legacy IAS test Series. This approach is more of an integrated approach and that is why it qualifies as the best strategy.
The approach is not about taking frequent tests and evaluating oneself on a periodic basis. The Test Series has a schedule which clearly mentions the topics that would be covered in each test. The Test Series is planned in such a way that all relevant portions and reference books, alongside previous year Question papers are covered too.
The best part is the discussion on the tests and clarification of the doubts in the classroom, in a dedicated session. Further, explanations to the options will be provided comprehensively to help the student to have a holistic understanding of the underlying concepts.
Advantages of Legacy IAS test series in a nutshell:
- Coverage of all the relevant textbooks and online study material within a timeframe.
- Every month Current Affairs test will be separate
- Get an idea about the exam setting. Analysis of performance, which serves as a feedback, even as one gets to know the strengths and weaknesses across subjects.
- A simple way to course-correct your preparation
- Serves as revision of crucial topics that you have studied from the textbooks/Material
- High chances of getting the same/similar questions in the actual UPSC Prelims exam
Success Strategy 3 – NCERT Texts’ coverage and beyond
NCERT textbooks from Class 6-12 are quintessential in UPSC exam Preparation. These are the basic books upon which information other sources can be utilised. These “other sources” are aplenty, offline as well as online.
Given that NCERTs alone cannot get you over the line, you must see to it that NCERTs are covered as early as possible. It is preferable too complete them in the initial days of preparation, say 3 months. To revise them later, handy notes are to be made or use the Explanations of Legacy Daily Static Quiz, which encompasses over 1200 MCQs based on NCERTs
Success Strategy 4 – Bringing Current Affairs into focus
This is a strategy which is to be supplemented with other strategy/ies which you embrace. Legacy IAS publishes Current Affairs under various sections and compilations:
- Daily Current Affairs which includes
- Analyses of important Editorials from various Newspapers (Monthly Compilation available too)
- PIB summaries on a daily basis (Monthly Compilation available too)
- “Prelims Booster” with topics only relevant to Prelims but not for Main Exam (Monthly Compilation available too)
- Daily Quiz—both Static and Current Affairs based (Monthly Compilation available too)
- Infographics for bolstering retention of current events
Success Strategy 5 – Don’t let Paper-2 (CSAT) play the Spoilsport
In the years starting from 2015, the difficulty level of Paper-2 of Prelims Exam has been gradually increasing. Many students’ dreams are dashed just because of the lack of time in attempting the requisite number questions to cross the Minimum cut-off of 33%. Side-lining this paper by assuming that you are good at Mathematics and English is like inviting a disaster.
Though one needs to score just 66 marks out of 200, you have to work for it. The right way ahead to be comfortable with this paper is to solve the previous years’ papers and Legacy IAS CSAT papers. Those students who lag in solving Aptitude questions can attend the sessions at Legacy IAS Academy, where certain tricks and shortcuts will be taught to get over the line.
Success Strategy 6 – Study based on ROI
The investments made during the preparation are Time, Efforts and Study Material.
Returns on each front must be in accordance with the investments made. The Pareto principle, also known as the 80/20 rule, is a management theory which states that 80 percent of the output from a given situation is determined by 20 percent of the input.
Always first put effort in those areas, which yield maximum results. Keep the less Return on Investment (ROI) areas to be handled later.
Preparation for UPSC exam takes a lot of effort and demands highest level of consistency and commitment. Main exam decides candidate’s future whether he/she would be getting IAS/IPS/IRS/IFS or IAAS or some other Central Service.
Boxes that need to be checked before starting preparation for Main examination:
- Go through the entire syllabus of all the four General Studies papers
- Pick up the rights books for the right topics.
- Do read one book 10 times, instead of 10 books in a go
- Read at least one newspaper thoroughly on a daily basis by keeping syllabi in mind
- Try to make questions from editorials part. Ponder over it: If you were the examiner, then how would ask the question on this particular topic
- Practice answer writing of at least 2 questions on General Studies everyday
- Complete optional papers before December/January
- Do engage daily in answer writing for optional paper and keep them as notes for last minute revision
- Do write one essay, once a week on various general topics and try to collect facts in various areas like social, environmental, economic etc in a notebook to use in essay
- Last but not the least, put revision in your daily schedule without fail.
Detailed Paper-wise strategy
General Studies Paper 1
1)Modern Indian History
- Read history as a chain of events by focusing on cause and effect. Don’t try to remember history as facts and dates. Try to study history in a chronological order and visualise yourself as a part of history making.
- For important topics prepare your own notes. For example: 1857 struggle, Various acts, Swadeshi Movement, Arrival of Gandhiji, Gandhiji vs Subhash Bose, Gandhiji vs Nehru, Gandhiji vs Ambedkar, Non-cooperation movement, Civil Disobedience movement, August Offer to India Independence Act 1947 etc
- Selected topics, which are not covered elsewhere, from Bipan Chandra (India’s Struggle for Independence).
- Previous Year Mains Questions
2)Art and Culture-
- Nitin Singhania (Selective)
- NCERT- an Introduction to art and architecture
- Try to analyse socio-economic, political and religious significance of various arts and architecture. This topic is majorly divided into 3 parts: Architecture, Literature and Various Art Forms.
- Give more time to architecture part, followed by performing arts (Classical Dance, Folk Music), Indian Painting (including folk), literature (Try to cover it in ancient Indian History itself)
- Previous Years Mains Questions
- NCERT on World Civilisation.
- Refer Legacy IAS’s ‘Concepts’ tab on www.legacyias.com
- UPSC asks merely 1-2 questions from this section every year. So, it’s apt to allocate time accordingly.
- Cover major topics like Reorganization of states, Bhoodan-Gramdan movement, Land reforms, Wars, emergency, LPG era etc. from NCERT
- You can also refer Legacy IAS’ notes.
- 12th NCERT
- Legacy IAS’ notes on topics like urbanisation, women issues, old age issues, farmer suicides, regionalism, communalism, nationalism etc
- Go through newspapers and jot down the events/observations for this section
- Analyse previous years’ mains questions
- 11th and 12th NCERTs
- For Distribution of Resources- Legacy IAS’ notes
- For Value Addition- Legacy IAS’ notes
- In Mains exam, questions from geography are always easier.
- Search current affairs-oriented topics from newspapers– like disaster, environmental issues etc as UPSC has a habit of asking questions from these topics in GS paper 1.
- Learn to draw maps in answers.
General Studies -Paper 2
- M Laxmikant (This book is more than enough to solve any static question)
- Legacy IAS’ Class notes (Here topics like Judicial review, Judicial activism, Governor’s constitutional discretionary powers, President vis-à-vis Prime minister, Presidential vs Parliamentary form of government, Comparison of various countries’ constitution vis-à-vis Indian constitution etc are covered thoroughly)
- For current affairs part, refer Legacy IAS’ website
- Make syllabus wise notes and divide the syllabus into various issues. For example, regarding Judiciary you can analyse various issues like Contempt of Court, Pendency of Cases, Vacancy of Judges, NJAC, NCA, AIJC, NGT, Discipline of Judges etc. and write them at one place so that it is better to revise those when the exam is on the close heels.
- M Laxmikant (To cover basic topics)
- Legacy IAS’ notes
- Previous years’ Mains questions
- 2nd Administrative Reform Commission reports (Summary part), Punchi Commission
- Analyse major schemes related to education, health and various poverty related schemes from the Internet.
- Prepare diagrams, flowcharts, Recommendations of various committees and some case studies to improve your answers for this topic.
- Various government websites
- Every year UPSC asks 2-3 questions in this section and most belong to India’s neighbourhood relations
- Read columns of C Rajamohan, Brahma Challaney, Suhasini Haider, Srinath Raghavan in various newspapers like Indian Express, The Hindu etc.
- Weekly, visit Ministry of External Affairs Website and read ‘Distinguished Lectures’ and India’s Perspective
- Visit Institute for Defence Studies and Analyses website
- Legacy IAS’ current Affairs Booklet
General Studies– Paper 3
1) Indian Economy
- Static Part- Shankar Ganesh/Ramesh Singh
- NCERT– Class 11 and class 12 (Macroeconomics)
- Legacy IAS’ lecture class on Economic Survey and Budget
- Legacy IAS’ current notes
- Focus on macro topics, instead of micro issues like change in the repo rate etc.
- Focus more on trends like in Inflation, GDP, IIP etc
- Read major policies by Min of Finance or RBI
- Don’t read profits, loss, revenue etc of any company or bank on business page
- Students can avoid Economic Times safely for this section
2)Infrastructure and Investment models
- Read newspapers for this section.
- Infrastructure chapter in Economic survey
- Investment models like PPP, Hybrid model and annuity model. Don’t over do these models. Just a basic understanding is enough at a macro level
- Students can refer Yojana Magazine– selective issues
3)Environment and Disaster Management-
- NCERT booklet
- Revise major Topics from Legacy IAS book
- Follow various summits related with climate change, ozone hole depletion, plastic ban, IUCN, WWF, WEF, UNFCCC, UNCCD, UNCBD etc
- Read IUCN RED data list species especially related with Indian Subcontinent.
- Read about Wildlife Protection Act and various flora and fauna in protected areas.
- Read pollution related news, reports, survey or actions taken by government.
- For disaster management, refer NDMA website and 2nd ARC reports on disaster management.
- Refer IDSA Website
- Read Legacy IAS notebook on security
- Refer UPSC Mains previous years’ question papers on these topics.
- Read about Reform of Criminal Justice system, Police reform, Police Model Act, National Police Reform commission, SC guidelines in Prakash Singh case
- Read about terrorism, Lone-Wolf attack, Urban Naxalism, Naxalism, NRC etc
7)Science and Technology-
- For Basics- Refer google.
- For Current- Legacy IAS
- The Hindu
- Main topics need to covered like Defence related, Telecommunication (Wifi vs Bluetooth vs NFC vs White Fi vs Share It), Bio technology like GM crops, Assisted Reproduction, 3 parent baby, Stem Cells etc.
- Go through UPSC Previous years’ Mains question papers.
General Studies– Paper 4
- This paper is very important for the marks vary a lot among students in this paper.
- So, for this paper more than reading, it requires understanding and application, which comes from rational thought process and more and more answer writing practice.
- This paper contains two sections. Section A asks static questions and Section B asks case studies
- First student needs to learn syllabus of this paper completely
- Student needs to make handy notes of every topic given in syllabus.
- Case studies are asked from issues in Current affairs
- Lexicon (for basic understanding)
- Ethics, Integrity and Aptitude by G. Subba Rao and P. N. Roy Chowdhury
- 2nd ARC 4th Report
- RTI Act, Whistle-blower Act etc
Case studies– Nearly half of the question paper comprises Case studies. So, the student needs to practice more and more case studies so as to fetch good marks in this paper.
Here students need to follow Buddha’s middle path philosophy. Don’t write extreme views. Students can quote Mahatma Gandhi, Tagore, Martin Luther, Buddhism and Jainism philosophy etc in explaining their view points. Students need to try terms from syllabus as much as possible by writing all possible ethical values.
Whenever students give various possible options, then he/she needs to write merits and demerits of all options and choose that option as his/her decision which contains more merits.
Students can quote from constitutional values, societal values, various acts etc to prove his/her point but it should be acceptable. Human rights, animal rights, children and women rights need to be given more priority over others.
Last but not the least:
- Revise, revise and revise
- Give one mock test every week
- Complete optional paper before January
- Review time table regularly
- Don’t waste too much time on social media
- Don’t isolate yourself—be an observant
- Regularly talk with your parents, siblings and friends with positive attitude
- Engage in physical exercise regularly
- Stay away from all negativities
- UPSC is not greater than your life.
Most of the candidates who have achieved success in this exam are of the opinion that selection of the best optional subject gets you halfway through in this examination. Few things students need to keep in mind.
- The first step in optional selection is to go through the list of all the optional subjects and narrow it down to one or two choices.
- The next step is to analyze the entire syllabus, previous year’s papers, past trends and try to get a feedback from other aspirants who are proficient in the subject.
- A subject should be such that it excites one and makes you think out of the box.
- Selection of optional differs for different aspirants and hence it wouldn’t be correct to base one’s choice on other’s opinion. An aspirant should go for it only if it ignites an interest.
- Once the syllabus is mastered and you gain a good hold on the subject, marks will follow.
- Loads of writing practice and an in-depth understanding will help one score well and it holds equally for all the subjects.
- Other factors like recent trend of marks, level of difficulty and familiarity of the subject etc. help one make an informed decision.
- An ideal optional would be the one which wouldn’t hinder the time for General studies preparation and one can finish studying in a time bound manner.
The overlapping strategy is followed by a lot of aspirants where one would choose an optional which forms a considerable part of General Studies as well. So, when one starts preparing for that chosen optional, a considerable part of GS is covered as well. This might seem like a luring strategy but one should choose an optional only when it interests them genuinely. Many optional in some way or the other contribute towards GS or Essay preparation.
- Political Science optional overlaps with Polity and India and the world part.
- Geography covers GS geography, environment, climate change etc.
- Economics overlaps with the Economy part of GS mains.
- Sociology overlaps with GS social issues and can also come in the Essay section.
- Public administration and Law both cover Polity. Pub ad also overlaps with the governance part.
Last but not the least:
- Choose an overlapping optional only if you are strong in that subject else it might backfire.
- Depending on the time left for preparation for that optional, one should take a call. It is advised to avoid taking an optional subject which requires extensive preparation.
- Complete optional paper before December-January
- Do lot of answer writing practice of previous years questions
- Don’t leave any topic in syllabus
- Don’t read too many books in optional paper
- Discuss various topics with your friends, teachers to get more clarity
- Make proper hand written notes for optional paper