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PIB Summaries 17 February 2024

  1. Sangam: Digital Twin Initiative
  2. Coal Gasification


Recently, the Department of Telecommunications (DoT) has unveiled the ‘Sangam: Digital Twin’ initiative.


GS II: Government policies and Interventions

Sangam: Digital Twin Initiative Overview

Proof of Concept (PoC):
  • The initiative unfolds in two stages, beginning with an exploratory phase focused on creative exploration and clarity of vision, followed by a practical demonstration stage highlighting specific use cases.
  • The ultimate goal is to create a future blueprint that can guide collaborative efforts in scaling and replicating successful strategies across future infrastructure projects.
Aim and Objectives:
  • Sangam aims to showcase the practical implementation of innovative infrastructure planning solutions.
  • The initiative seeks to establish a model framework fostering efficient collaboration and intends to provide a roadmap for scaling and replicating successful strategies in forthcoming infrastructure ventures.
Digital Twin Technology:
  • Employing Digital Twin technology, Sangam creates virtual replicas of physical assets.
  • This enables real-time monitoring, simulation, and analysis, facilitating experimental iterations and feedback loops to adapt dynamically for optimal outcomes.
Technological Integration:
  • In the backdrop of technological breakthroughs in communication, computation, and sensing, Sangam integrates 5G, IoT, AI, AR/VR, AI-native 6G, Digital Twin, and next-gen computational technologies.
  • This collaborative effort harnesses the collective intelligence of diverse entities, including public bodies, infrastructure planners, tech companies, startups, and academia.
Vision 2047:
  • Aligned with the techade era’s vision for 2047, Sangam represents a collaborative leap in reshaping infrastructure planning and design.
  • Breaking silos, the initiative seeks to bridge the gap between conceptualization and realization, providing a platform for stakeholders to transform innovative ideas into tangible solutions and contribute to groundbreaking advancements in infrastructure.


The Ministry of Coal, Government of India, is set to host an Industry Interaction in Hyderabad aimed at fostering the development and proliferation of coal/lignite gasification projects across the nation.


GS III: Science and Technology

Coal Gasification Overview

Process Description:

  • Coal gasification is a chemical process aimed at producing syngas, a mixture comprising carbon monoxide (CO), hydrogen (H2), carbon dioxide (CO2), methane (CH4), and water vapor (H2O).
  • This process involves the interaction of coal and water, along with air and/or oxygen, in a gasifier—a high-temperature/pressure vessel.
  • Through chemical reactions, the feed material transforms into syngas and ash/slag.

Utilization of Syngas:

  • Syngas generated through coal gasification serves versatile purposes, including electricity production, application in energy-efficient fuel cell technology, and utilization as chemical “building blocks” for industrial processes.
  • Additionally, the extracted hydrogen can contribute to fueling a hydrogen economy.

Environmental Benefits:

  • The adoption of coal gasification is associated with several environmental advantages. It addresses local pollution concerns and is deemed cleaner in comparison to direct coal combustion.
  • Furthermore, by reducing reliance on imports for natural gas, methanol, ammonia, and other essential products, coal gasification contributes to sustainability and aligns with global commitments for a greener future.

Potential Impact:

  • Coal gasification has the potential to alleviate environmental burdens by curbing carbon emissions and fostering sustainable practices.
  • Its multifaceted applications position it as a strategic approach to meet energy needs while advancing environmental responsibility in India’s pursuit of a greener and more sustainable future.