India’s puppetry tradition stands as a testament to the country’s cultural richness and artistic ingenuity. This age-old art form, rooted in history, not only showcases the creative prowess of its craftsmen but also serves as a captivating means of storytelling. From the early references in ancient texts to the diverse forms found across the country today, puppetry in India is a tapestry woven with cultural threads.


Evolution of Puppetry:

  • Puppetry, considered one of humanity’s remarkable inventions, surpasses its live counterpart due to the enduring and suggestive elements it possesses.
  • The term “puppet” originates from the Latin word “Pupa,” meaning “doll.”
  • The earliest mention of puppetry dates back to the first or second century B.C. in the Tamil classic “Silappadikaaram.”

Types of Puppets in India:

  • String Puppets: Manipulated through strings, these puppets are integral to various traditions across India.
  • Shadow Puppets: Utilizing the play of shadows, this form is showcased in diverse styles such as ‘Tholu Bommalata’ in Andhra Pradesh and ‘Tholpavakoothu’ in Kerala.
  • Rod Puppets: Manipulated using rods, this form adds a dynamic dimension to puppetry, offering versatility in movement.
  • Glove Puppets: Exemplified by the ‘Beni Putul’ tradition in West Bengal, these puppets are controlled by the puppeteer’s hand within a glove.

Regional Examples:

  • Kathputli, Rajasthan: Carved from a single piece of wood, these puppets resemble large dolls adorned in vibrant Rajasthani attire.
    Accompanied by a dramatized version of regional music, Kathputli brings the cultural vibrancy of Rajasthan to life.
  • Kundhei, Odisha: Crafted from light wood, Odisha puppets lack legs but boast long flowing skirts, enhancing their versatility.
    The joints in Kundhei puppets make them articulate and easy to manipulate during performances.
  • Gombeyatta, Karnataka: Karnataka’s string puppets, known as Gombeyatta, mirror characters from the traditional Yakshagana theater form.
    Their design reflects the unique cultural nuances of Karnataka’s artistic heritage.
  • Bommalattam, Tamil Nadu: Made from wood, Bommalattam puppets in Tamil Nadu are manipulated through strings tied to an iron ring worn by the puppeteer, resembling a crown.
  • Chitrakathi Puppetry, Maharashtra: Maharashtra’s Chitrakathi puppetry, performed with leather puppets in the ‘Chamadyache Bahulya’ tradition, weaves tales using vivid visuals.
  • Shadow Puppeteers, Kerala:
    In Kerala, shadow puppetry known as ‘Tholpavakoothu’ creates enchanting narratives through intricate play with light and shadow.

India’s puppetry traditions, ranging from the iconic Kathputli in Rajasthan to the dynamic Gombeyatta in Karnataka, exemplify the country’s cultural diversity and artistic finesse.

As these puppetry forms continue to evolve, they serve as living embodiments of India’s rich heritage, captivating audiences with their storytelling prowess and vibrant aesthetics. The puppetry traditions across the nation not only reflect regional nuances but also contribute to the cultural mosaic that defines India.

Legacy Editor Changed status to publish December 2, 2023