• The recent inclusion of Finland into NATO and the United States’ assertive stance against the Russian incursion in Ukraine have bolstered NATO and the US-Europe strategic alliance.
  • NATO, or the North Atlantic Treaty Organization, represents an intergovernmental military alliance among European and North American nations.

Benefits for India in expansion and strengthening of NATO:

Counterbalancing China:

  • A robust NATO can function as a counterweight to the growing influence of China.
  • Example: NATO’s increased focus on the Indo-Pacific strategy aligns with India’s aspirations for a free and open South China Sea, ensuring freedom of navigation.

Enhanced Defense Cooperation:

  • A reinforced NATO can lead to stronger defense partnerships for India.
  • Example: India’s joint naval exercises with France, a key NATO member, in the Indian Ocean Region (IOR) signify a deepening of defense ties.

Counter-terrorism Efforts:

  • NATO’s counter-terrorism initiatives are in line with India’s concerns.
  • Example: Intelligence sharing and joint counter-terrorism strategies with NATO members can help India address challenges posed by cross-border terrorism.

Complexities for India in the expansion and strengthening of NATO:

  • NATO’s expansion, particularly towards Russia’s western borders, may strain India’s traditional ties with Russia.
  • Example: India’s defense deals, such as the purchase of the S-400 missile system from Russia, faced criticism from NATO members. Nevertheless, more than 50% of India’s defense procurement remains sourced from Russia (SIPRI).

Benefits for India from a Robust US-Europe Strategic Partnership:

Economic Collaborations:

  • A united US-Europe front can create enhanced economic opportunities for India.
  • Example: The push to establish resilient supply chains, particularly post-COVID-19, offers India an opportunity to position itself as an alternative to China.

Technological Ties:

  • Stronger US-Europe relations can foster technological collaborations with India.
  • Example: Collaborative efforts in developing 5G technology can provide India with alternatives to Chinese tech firms.

Diplomatic Leverage:

  • A solid US-Europe partnership can assist India in addressing global challenges.
  • Example: Both the US and European countries have pressured Pakistan regarding its approach to terrorist groups, which works in India’s favor.

Complexities for India in a Robust US-Europe Strategic Partnership:

Trade Challenges:

  • A tighter US-Europe bond might lead to trade policies that challenge India’s interests.
  • Example: A coordinated US-Europe stance might pressure India on issues like intellectual property rights or market access during trade negotiations.

Way Forward:

Engage Actively:

India should deepen its engagement with NATO on shared interests and foster direct relations with individual European nations.
C. Raja Mohan recommends deeper India-NATO interactions, while Harsha V. Singh suggests cultivating individual ties with European countries for economic collaboration.

Maintain Strategic Balance:

Amidst growing Western ties, India must ensure its traditional relations, especially with Russia, remain unaffected.
Dmitri Trenin emphasizes the significance of India’s balancing act between the West and Russia.

Trade Negotiations with Prudence:

India should craft agreements that safeguard its domestic interests when dealing with a unified US-Europe trade stance.
Arvind Subramanian advises protecting domestic industries during international trade discussions.

Participate in Multilateral Forums:

India should actively engage in platforms with US and European presence to ensure that its perspectives are considered.
S. Jaishankar highlights the role of multilateralism in shaping global narratives.


The expansion and strengthening of NATO and a robust US-Europe strategic partnership present numerous advantages and complexities for India. India’s diplomatic acumen will be tested as it navigates these evolving geopolitical landscapes, aiming to maximize benefits while managing challenges effectively.

Legacy Editor Changed status to publish November 4, 2023