Savanna regions encompass two distinct seasons, marked by a wet season characterized by abundant rainfall and a dry season with minimal precipitation. This climatic dichotomy influences the vegetation, resulting in the growth of lush green grasses and wooded areas during the wet season.

Main Body:

Savanna Biomes:

  • Savannas, often referred to as tropical grasslands, are predominantly situated to the north and south of tropical rainforest biomes.
  • The most extensive savanna regions can be found in Africa, where countries like Kenya and Tanzania encompass substantial tropical grasslands.
  • Beyond Africa, savanna grasslands also make their presence known in Brazil, South America.

Distribution of Savanna:

  • The Savanna climate is typically situated between the latitudes of 10° to 20° on both sides of the equator.
  • It serves as a transitional climate, bridging the gap between equatorial rainforests and hot desert regions.
  • Its location is defined by the shifting pressure belts, residing between the equatorial low-pressure belt associated with the Intertropical Convergence Zone (ITCZ) and the subtropical high-pressure belt.

Seasonal variations in the sun’s position lead to dynamic changes:

  • During the summer solstice (21 June), the northward migration of the sun shifts the equatorial low-pressure belt and ITCZ northward, ushering in atmospheric disturbances like cyclones that bring rains to the Savanna climate.
  • Conversely, the southward migration of the sun during the winter solstice (23 December) places the Savanna climate under the influence of the subtropical high-pressure belt, resulting in anticyclonic conditions and dry weather.
  • The descending stable winds during anticyclonic conditions contribute to the arid nature of the dry season.

Wind patterns also play a pivotal role:

  • Onshore winds during summer deliver precipitation, while offshore winds in winter maintain dry conditions.
  • The prevailing Trade Winds, strengthened during the summer, bring rainfall to coastal regions but tend to be drier as they advance inland or approach western coasts.
  • Local winds and sea breezes further impact coastal areas.
  • Eastern coastal areas are influenced by trade winds, and the warm season often witnesses the dominance of strong and high-velocity tropical cyclones.


Given its distinctive climatic conditions, the Savanna is renowned as natural cattle country, and many indigenous populations in these regions adopt pastoralism as a way of life.

This interplay of climatic factors in the formation of Savanna climates underscores the intricate relationship between environmental conditions and human livelihoods in these regions

Legacy Editor Changed status to publish September 14, 2023