- Introduction on rock-cut architecture.
- Discuss its significance citing various examples.
Rock-cut architecture is the practice of creating a structure, by carving out of the solid natural rock. It differs from ‘structural architecture’ in many different ways. The art form is more of sculptural than architectural.
- They depict religious values – Buddhist: Chaitra and Viharas Bhaja and Karle caves at western Ghats, Ajanta caves; Hindu Kailasanath temple at Ellora, Shore temples at Mahabalipuram; Jain: Udaygiri and Khandavgiri caves; Ajivika Sect’s : Barabara caves.
- Art and cultural significance: A period of intense building activities at Ajanta occurred under the Vakataka King Harisena between 460-478 CE (Caves other than 9, 10, 12 and 13). A profuse variety of decorative sculpture, intricately carved columns, and carved reliefs are found, including exquisitely carved cornices and pilaster. Skilled artisans constructed living rock, imitating timber texture, grain, and structure.
- A rock-cut temple is carved from a large rock, and excavated and cut to imitate a wooden or masonry temple, with wall decorations, and works of art. The finest example of this type is the Kailashanāth Temple at Ellora. The Kailashanāth Temple, or Cave 16 as it is known at Ellora Caves, is located at Maharashtra on the Deccan Plateau, is a huge monolithic temple dedicated to Lord Siva. It is famous for the fact that, it was excavated from the top down, rather than by the usual practice of carving into the scarp of a hillside. The Temple was created through a single, huge top-down excavation 100 feet down into volcanic basaltic cliff rock.
- Society: The earliest caves employed by humans were natural caves used by local inhabitant for a variety of purposes, such as shrines and shelters. The early caves included overhanging rock decorated with rock-cut art, and the use of natural caves during the Mesolithic period (6,000 BCE). The rock-shelters of Bhimbetka, a World Heritage Site, are on the Deccan Plateau, where deep erosion has left huge sandstone outcrops. The many caves found there contain primitive tools and decorative rock paintings that reflect the ancient tradition of human interaction with their environment, an interaction that continues to this day.
- Economic: Bhaja and Karle were at famous trade routes in western Ghats which used to connect sea port to interiors.
- Political: Caves were patronized by kings across country Barbara caves by Ashoka, Ellora caves by Rashtrakutas, Badami by Chalukyas.
- Education center: Kanheri caves were biggest education center in Western India. Environment Conservation: Water resources are prevalent at Kanheri which shows water harvesting was practiced at caves.
Thus rock cut architecture across India providing information about life and times of ancient Indian people and help us understand their society through their lens. It helps us to trace the life in India and its Evolution through socio political perspective & how it changed the Indian way of life.