Recent technological advancements have revolutionized disaster management by enhancing the role of Geographic Information System (GIS) and Remote Sensing technologies, enabling more efficient workflows and effective remedial measures.
Application of GIS and Remote Sensing in Disaster Management
- GIS and remote sensing enable the mapping and analysis of hazards while visualizing their potential impacts.
- Integration of hazards with critical infrastructure, population densities, and community values helps in identifying vulnerabilities.
- Example: Cartosat-1 was utilized to assess inundation vulnerability along India’s coastline in the event of a tsunami.
- Facilitates the selection of suitable evacuation shelter locations.
- Models evacuation routes for efficient planning.
- Identifies and maps critical facilities like hospitals and public safety centers.
- Enables a command and control information system for situational awareness and incident management.
- Example: GIS aided in the selection of evacuation routes during the 2018 Kerala floods.
- Provides timely warnings and notifications to the public based on the incident’s location.
- Helps maintain inventories, power requirements, and shelter capacities.
- Identifies the locations and capabilities of public safety resources.
- Enables remote connections to the command center.
- Facilitates information sharing with regional, state, and federal agencies.
- Aids in incident status reporting and damage assessment.
- Example: During the COVID-19 pandemic, GIS was employed to track the spread of the virus and allocate medical resources efficiently.
- Assists in identifying damage and estimating overall costs.
- Prioritizes reconstruction efforts based on local criteria.
- Locates businesses and supplies necessary for reconstruction.
- Determines short-term actions for critical infrastructure damage assessment.
- Example: After the 2013 Uttarakhand floods, GIS helped identify damaged infrastructure and plan reconstruction efforts.
GIS and remote sensing technologies offer cost-effective and dependable solutions for disaster management.
Leveraging these technologies is crucial to formulate effective disaster management strategies in India, preventing economic and social losses.
India’s experience with GIS and remote sensing applications in disaster management highlights their indispensable role in the nation’s resilience against natural and man-made crises.