India’s industrial development displays significant regional variations, with the concentration of industries in clusters across specific areas. These industrial regions have emerged in proximity to major ports like Kolkata, Mumbai, and Chennai, capitalizing on various advantages such as raw materials, energy, capital, and market access.
1. Hooghly Industrial Region:
- Located in the vicinity of tea plantations in Assam and Bengal.
- Benefitted from the availability of inexpensive labor migrating from Bihar, Orissa, and eastern Uttar Pradesh.
2. Mumbai – Pune Industrial Region:
- Easy access to raw cotton from the fertile Narmada and Tapti black soil belt.
- Coastal humid climate conducive to weaving and spinning.
- Efficient import of capital goods through Mumbai port.
3. Ahmedabad – Vadodara Region:
- Gained advantage from the decline of the cotton textile industry in Mumbai due to high transportation costs.
- Proximity to raw cotton sources.
- Growth of petrochemical industry after oil discovery in the Gulf of Cambay.
- Strategic location near Kandla port.
4. Madurai – Coimbatore – Bangalore Region:
- Dominated by cotton and sugarcane cultivation.
- Benefited from hydel power generated by Mettur, Sharavathi, Sivasamudram projects.
- Houses public sector giants like Hindustan Machine Tools, Bharat Electronics, BHEL, and more.
5. Chhota Nagpur Plateau Region:
- Abundance of coal and iron in Bihar-Orissa belt.
- Proximity of these resources facilitated efficient utilization.
- Availability of power from Damodar Valley Project and coal-based thermal power plants.
6. Delhi and Adjoining Region:
- Emerged due to its strategic location as a capital city.
- Access to skilled labor and robust infrastructure.
The emergence of these industrial clusters has led to imbalanced regional industrial growth in India. These regions have thrived due to their unique advantages such as resource availability, power supply, and favorable geographical conditions.
To address these disparities, a well-structured and stable industrial policy is imperative to promote equitable industrial development across the nation.