Limitations live only in our minds. But if we use our imaginations, our possibilities become limitless.” – Jamie Paolinetti. This quote perfectly mirrors our philosophy as we guide UPSC aspirants through their journey, especially those opting for psychology as their optional subject.
Selecting the right optional subject is often a pivotal decision in a UPSC aspirant’s path, given its significant weightage in the mains examination.
An ideal optional subject should not only aid you in outperforming in mains but also act as a safety net, compensating for the scores in General Studies. It should bring out your maximum potential.
Why Choose Psychology as an Optional?
Psychology, being rational and logical, proves to be a smart choice for many reasons:
- Its comprehensibility makes it a popular choice among aspirants.
- It encompasses various topics covered in GS Paper 4 and the Essay paper in mains.
- It has a commendable track record of successful candidates.
- Easy availability of study material.
Who Should Opt for Psychology as an Optional?
Choosing psychology is best for those with:
- A genuine interest in the subject.
- Difficulty in rote learning, as Psychology requires more understanding and conceptual clarity.
Is Psychology a Scoring Subject?
With many candidates scoring above 300, Psychology has become a preferred optional. While UPSC doesn’t favour any optional subject, your interest should always take precedence.
Why Join Our Best Psychology Coaching in Bangalore and Across India?
We provide detailed coverage of both Psychology papers I & II, topic-wise modules, and special lecture series on answer writing practice. Get access to 150+ hours of offline/online lectures by Delhi-based faculty members.
Benefits of Online Psychology Coaching:
Enjoy the flexibility of learning at your time, your place. With online coaching, you never miss a lecture, and you save time on commuting.
Choose Us for Your Psychology Optional Preparation:
Our course is designed for those interested in opting for Psychology as an optional, facing problems in understanding theories, and struggling with answer writing. Our course will help you unlock your potential and grasp the basics.
Answer Writing in Psychology:
Our coaching also emphasizes answer writing techniques specific to Psychology. We encourage adding psychologists’ views, data, facts, figures, and technical words. We guide you to interlink topics and use case studies for a comprehensive answer.
Reference Books for Psychology Optional:
- “Psychology” by Robert A. Baron
- “Psychology” by Saundra Ciccarelli
- “Understanding Psychology” by Robert S. Feldman
- “Tests, Measurements and Research Methods in Behavioural Sciences” by A K Singh
- Psychology – Classes XI & XII NCERT textbooks
- “Applied Psychology” by Smarak Swain
Join us today for the best online psychology classes in India, and let us guide you towards achieving your UPSC dream.
KEY HIGHLIGHTS OF THE OPTIONAL SUBJECT PROGRAMME (OSP) FOR UPSC 2024
- Duration of the Course will be from September 2023 to February 2024 (5 months).
- The Optional Subject will be covered in 3 hour classes for 3 Days in weekdays during the 5 months.
- There will be 6 Full-length Tests along with Daily Answer writing practice as a part of the Optional Course.
- The Classes for the Optional Subjects will be held in Offline + Live-and-Interactive Online mode.
- The Tests for Optional Subject can be attempted in both Online and Offline modes as well.
Psychology Optional Coaching Fees:
We offer highly competitive fees for our comprehensive courses:
- Online video lectures for both optional papers 1 & 2 + Soft copy study material: Rs. 25,000/-
- Classroom lectures for both optional papers 1 & 2 + study material + 6 Tests: Rs. 40,000/-
For registration: Visit https://www.legacyias.com/registration/
Offline + Live-and-Interactive Online Classes for Optional Subject
- Classes are made accessible through 3 modes –
- Offline Physical Classroom Sessions,
- Live and Interactive Online Sessions and
- Recorded Sessions.
- Our platform ensures that the Offline physical classroom sessions and the Online Interactive sessions run simultaneously to the effect that even in the situations, such as the ones exposed by the pandemic, where you are bound to to be absent in the classroom – you can attend the Live and Interactive Online sessions from anywhere without missing out on asking doubts and answering questions.
- In case you are unable to attend even the online sessions, recorded sessions will be provided WITHOUT any unreasonable caveats such as ‘deletion of recorded sessions within a few days’.
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Legacy IAS Academy’s Online Platform for Live Interactive Sessions
Optional Subjects are also included as a part of the Foundation Course and 2-Years Integrated Course offered at Legacy IAS Academy.
These courses will integrate coaching for the Optional Subject along with the General Studies subjects and include a plethora of features such as Test-series, Mains Answer-writing Practice, Personal Guidance Programme (LRP), Study Materials etc., that are included in the course.
PAPER – I Psychology Optional Syllabus:
Foundations of Psychology
1.Introduction: Definition of Psychology; Historical antecedents of Psychology and trends in the 21st century; Psychology and scientific methods; Psychology in relation to other social sciences and natural sciences; Application of Psychology to societal problems.
2.Methods of Psychology: Types of research: Descriptive, evaluative, diagnostic and prognostic; Methods of Research: Survey, observation, case-study and experiments; Characteristics of experimental design and non-experimental design, Quasi-experimental designs; Focussed group discussions, brain storming, grounded theory approach.
3.Research Methods: Major steps in Psychological research (problem statement, hypothesis formulation, research designs, sampling, tools of data collection, analysis and interpretation and report writing) Fundamental versus applied research; Methods of data collection (interview, observation, questionnaire); Research designs (ex-post facto and experimental); Application of statistical technique (t-test, two-way ANOVA correlation, regression and factor analysis); Item response theory.
4.Development of Human Behaviour: Growth and development; Principles of development, Role of genetic and environmental factors in determining human behaviour; Influence of cultural factors in socialization; Life span development – Characteristics, development tasks, promoting psychological well-being across major stages of the life span.
5.Sensation, Attention and Perception: Sensation: concepts of the threshold, absolute and difference thresholds, signal-detection and vigilance; Factors influencing attention including set and characteristics of stimulus; Definition and concept of perception, biological factors in perception; Perceptual organization-influence of past experiences, perceptual defence-factors influencing space and depth perception, size estimation and perceptual readiness; The plasticity of perception; Extrasensory perception; Culture and perception, Subliminal perception.
6.Learning: Concept and theories of learning (Behaviourists, Gestaltalist and Information processing models); The Processes of extinction, discrimination and generalization; Programmed learning, probability learning, self-instructional learning, concepts; Types and the schedules of reinforcement, escape, avoidance and punishment, modelling and social learning.
7.Memory: Encoding and remembering; Short term memory, Long term memory, Sensory memory, Iconic memory, Echoic memory: The Multistore model, levels of processing; Organization and Mnemonic techniques to improve memory; Theories of forgetting: decay, interference and retrieval failure: Metamemory; Amnesia: Anterograde and retrograde.
8.Thinking and Problem Solving: Piaget’s theory of cognitive development; Concept formation processes; Information processing, Reasoning and problem solving, Facilitating and hindering factors in problem-solving, Methods of problem-solving: Creative thinking and fostering creativity; Factors influencing decision making and judgment; Recent trends.
9.Motivation and Emotion: Psychological and physiological basis of motivation and emotion; Measurement of motivation and emotion; Effects of motivation and emotion on behaviour; Extrinsic and intrinsic motivation; Factors influencing intrinsic motivation; Emotional competence and the related issues.
10.Intelligence and Aptitude: Concept of intelligence and aptitude, Nature and theories of intelligence – Spearman, Thurstone, Guilford Vernon, Sternberg and J.P; Das; Emotional Intelligence, Social intelligence, measurement of intelligence and aptitudes, the concept of IQ, deviation IQ, the constancy of IQ; Measurement of multiple intelligence; Fluid intelligence and crystallized intelligence.
11.Personality: Definition and concept of personality; Theories of personality (psychoanalytical, sociocultural, interpersonal, developmental, humanistic, behaviouristic, trait and type approaches); Measurement of personality (projective tests, pencil-paper test); The Indian approach to personality; Training for personality development; Latest approaches like big 5-factor theory; The notion of self in different traditions.
12.Attitudes, Values and Interests: Definition of attitudes, values and interests; Components of attitudes; Formation and maintenance of attitudes; Measurement of attitudes, values and interests; Theories of attitude change; Strategies for fostering values; Formation of stereotypes and prejudices; Changing others behaviour; Theories of attribution; Recent trends.
13.Language and Communication: Human language – Properties, structure and linguistic hierarchy, Language acquisition- predisposition, critical period hypothesis; Theories of language development – Skinner and Chomsky; Process and types of communication – effective communication training.
14.Issues and Perspectives in Modern Contemporary Psychology: Computer application in the psychological laboratory and psychological testing; Artificial intelligence; Psychocybernetics; Study of consciousness-sleep-wake schedules; dreams, stimulus deprivation, meditation, hypnotic/drug-induced states; Extrasensory perception; Intersensory perception Simulation studies.
Psychology Optional Paper II Syllabus:
Psychology: Issues and Applications
1.Psychological Measurement of Individual Differences: The nature of individual differences; Characteristics and construction of standardized psychological tests; Types of psychological tests; Use, misuse and limitation of psychological tests; ethical issues in the use of psychological tests.
2.Psychological well-being and Mental Disorders: Concept of health-ill health; Positive health, wellbeing; Causal factors in mental disorders (Anxiety disorders, mood disorders, schizophrenia and delusional disorders; personality disorders, substance abuse disorders); Factors influencing positive health, well-being, lifestyle and quality of life; Happiness disposition.
3.Therapeutic Approaches: Psychodynamic therapies; Behaviour therapies; Client centred therapy; Cognitive therapies; Indigenous therapies (Yoga, Meditation); Bio-feedback therapy; Prevention and rehabilitation of the mentally ill; Fostering mental health.
4.Work Psychology and Organisational Behaviour: Personnel selection and training; Use of psychological tests in the industry; Training and human resource development; Theories of work motivation – Herzberg, Maslow, Adam Equity theory, Porter and Lawler, Vroom; Leadership and participatory management; Advertising and marketing; Stress and its management; Ergonomics; consumer psychology; Managerial effectiveness; Transformational leadership; Sensitivity training; Power and politics in organizations.
5.Application of Psychology to Educational Field: Psychological principles underlying effective teaching-learning process; Learning styles; Gifted, retarded, learning disabled and their training; Training for improving memory and better academic achievement; Personality development and value education, Educational, vocational guidance and career counselling; Use of psychological tests in educational institutions; Effective strategies in guidance programmes.
6.Community Psychology: Definition and concept of community psychology; Use of small groups in social action; Arousing community consciousness and action for handling social problems; Group decision making and leadership for social change; Effective strategies for social change.
7.Rehabilitation Psychology: Primary, secondary and tertiary prevention programmes-role of psychologists; Organising of services for the rehabilitation of physically, mentally and socially challenged persons including old persons, Rehabilitation of persons suffering from substance abuse, juvenile delinquency, criminal behaviour; Rehabilitation of victims of violence, Rehabilitation of HIV/AIDS victims, the role of social agencies.
8.Application of Psychology to disadvantaged groups: The concepts of disadvantaged, deprivation; Social, physical, cultural and economic consequences of disadvantaged and deprived groups; Educating and motivating the disadvantaged towards development; Relative and prolonged deprivation.
9.Psychological problems of social integration: The concept of social integration; The problem of caste, class, religion and language conflicts and prejudice; Nature and the manifestation of prejudice between the in-group and out-group; Causal factors of social conflicts and prejudices; Psychological strategies for handling the conflicts and prejudices; Measures to achieve social integration.
10.Application of Psychology in Information Technology and Mass Media: The present scenario of information technology and the mass media boom and the role of psychologists; Selection and training of psychology professionals to work in the field of IT and mass media; Distance learning through IT and mass media; Entrepreneurship through e-commerce; Multilevel marketing; Impact of TV and fostering value through IT and mass media; Psychological consequences of recent developments in Information Technology.
11.Psychology and Economic development: Achievement motivation and economic development; Characteristics of entrepreneurial behaviour; Motivating and training people for entrepreneurship and economic development; Consumer rights and consumer awareness, Government policies for the promotion of entrepreneurship among youth including women entrepreneurs.
12.Application of psychology to environment and related fields: Environmental psychology-effects of noise, pollution and crowding; Population psychology: psychological consequences of population explosion and high population density; Motivating for small family norm; Impact of rapid scientific and technological growth on degradation of the environment.
13.Application of psychology in other fields:
- Military Psychology Devising psychological tests for defence personnel for use in selection, Training, counselling; training psychologists to work with defence personnel in promoting positive health; Human engineering in defence
- Sports Psychology Psychological interventions in improving the performance of athletes and sports. Persons participating in Individual and Team Games.
- Media influences on pro and antisocial behaviour.
- Psychology of terrorism.
- Psychology of Gender: Issues of discrimination, Management of diversity; Glass ceiling effect, Self-fulfilling prophecy, Women and Indian society.