- 5G SPECTRUM AUCTION
- INDIAN NAMES FOR A STAR AND PLANET
- INTERNET SHUTDOWNS AND LAWS IN RELATION
5G SPECTURM AUCTION
Why in news?
Government has auctioned 5G spectrum.
What is 5G?
The term 5G is used to describe the next-generation of mobile networks beyond Long Term Evolution(LTE) mobile networks.
- It is a mix of telecom technology delivering much higher data speeds on more extensive connectivity, using much lower power, with extended battery life, and emitting less radiation.
- It is also designed to be the network for the Internet of Things (IoT).
- Not only will people be connected to each other but so will utility machines, industrial equipment, automobiles, city infrastructure, public safety and more.
The technology used:
- In order to support a huge number of devices, many of which require longer battery life, the 5G network will be building off of the LTE Advanced Pro platform.
- It will use the two narrowband technologies platforms:
- Enhanced machine-type communication (e-MTC) and narrowband IoT (NB-IoT), to scale down the device and network complexity to reach these support goals.
- 5G network speeds should have a peak data rate of 20 Gb/s for the downlink and 10 Gb/s for the uplink.
- Latency in a 5G network could get as low as 4 milliseconds in a mobile scenario and can be as low as 1 millisecond in ultra-reliable low latency communication scenarios.
- It is an abbreviation for Long Term Evolution. LTE is a 4G wireless communications standard developed by the 3rd Generation Partnership Project (3GPP) that are designed to provide up to 10x the speeds of 3G networks for mobile devices such as smartphones, tablets, netbooks, notebooks and wireless hotspots.
It stands for voice over Long Term Evolution. Utilising IMS technology, it is a digital packet voice service that is delivered over IP via an LTE access network. Voice calls over LTE are recognised as the industry-agreed progression of voice services across mobile networks, deploying LTE radio access technology.
INDIAN NAMES FOR A STAR AND PLANET
Why in news?
The International Astronomical Union (IAU) on announced that while the star would be called ‘Bibhā’, the planet would be known as ‘Santamasa’.
Who is Bibha?
The star has been named in honour of a pioneering Indian woman scientist Bibha Choudhury, who discovered subatomic particle, pi-meson. ‘Bhibha’ also means “a bright beam of light” in Bengali.
The planet has been named ‘Santamasa’ to reflect the cloudy nature of its atmosphere. ‘Santamasa’ is the Sanskrit term for ‘clouded’.
‘Santamasa’, which is its only planet, is estimated to have a mass of 1.5 times that of Jupiter, going around the central star in a nearly circular orbit just in 2.1375 days.
Revolving so near the host star, the planet is expected to be very hot.
Earlier the International Astronomical Union (IAU) has named an asteroid, discovered in 2006, after Indian classical singer Pandit Jasraj.
Pandit Jasraj is the first Indian musician to receive this honour.
The asteroid, or more formally known as a minor planet – 2006 VP32, is located in the asteroid belt, between Mars and Jupiter.
The asteroid belt is a region of the solar system falling roughly between the planets Mars and Jupiter where the greatest concentration of asteroids can be found.
It also serves as a sort of dividing line between the inner rocky planets and outer gas giants.
International Astronomical Union:
The International Astronomical Union (IAU) was founded in 1919, headquartered in Paris, France.
Its mission is to promote and safeguard the science of astronomy in all its aspects, including research, communication, education and development, through international cooperation.
It is the global authority for naming planetary features in the solar system.
INTERNET SHUTDOWNS AND LAWS IN RELATION
Software freedom law center – SFLC – global tracker on internet shutdowns.
India is the fastest growing internet market –
Economic cost of shutdowns over 16000 hours in past 5 years is around 3 billion $
- Temporary suspension of telecom services rules 2017
- Indian telegraph act 1885 – allows governments of center and state to prevent transmission of messaging during a public emergency or in the larger public interest.
- Sec 144 of IPC.
- Internet has become a basic necessity in 21st century India.
- Said to be a violation of right to free speech and expression.
- Internet has not been restored in Kashmir since 4th august. – excessive repression by the state.
- denial of the right to
- health care caused by people’s inability, among other things, to access government schemes such as
- Ayushman Bharat, and a withdrawal of education to students at different levels, occasioned by the seemingly interminable closure of institutions