Focus: GS III- Environment
Why in News?
A new report released today by NITI Aayog highlights that green hydrogen can substantially spur industrial decarbonisation and economic growth for India in the coming decades.
About Green Hydrogen
- The technology for green hydrogen is based on the generation of hydrogen through electrolysis.
- It is a universal, light and highly reactive fuel.
- Under this method, electrical current is used to separate the hydrogen from the oxygen in the water.
- In case the electricity is produced through renewable sources of energy, the hydrogen would be green hydrogen.
- Hydrogen is the most abundant element on earth. Also, the global demand for hydrogen as a fuel has become thrice of what it was in 1975. It is also the only source of energy that only emits water vapour and leaves no residue in the air.
- Hydrogen has been used to fuel cars, airships and spaceships since the beginning of the 19th century.
Green Hydrogen Advantages
- Hydrogen is a 100 % sustainable source: Green hydrogen does not emit polluting gases in its combustion or production processes.
- Green Hydrogen is a gas and thus would be easily stored. It can be subsequently used for other purposes just following its production.
- It can be easily transformed into electricity or synthetic gas which can then be used for domestic, commercial, industrial purposes.
- Green hydrogen can be mixed with the natural gas, up to a maximum of 20 %. It can also be transported through the same pipes and in the same infrastructure.
Green Hydrogen Disadvantages
- Renewable sources, which would be used to generate green hydrogen through electrolysis, are extremely expensive currently taking the cost of the whole production to sky heights.
- The production of green hydrogen requires more energy than other fuels.
- Green hydrogen is an extremely volatile and flammable element. It needs extensive safety measures to prevent leakage and explosions.
Green Hydrogen Importance
- Hydrogen is being used across the United States, Russia, China, France and Germany. Countries like Japan desire to become a hydrogen economy in future.
- Green hydrogen can in future be used for
- Electricity and drinking water generation, energy storage, transportation etc.
- Green hydrogen can be used to provide water to the crew members in space stations.
- Energy storage- Compressed hydrogen tanks can store the energy longer and are easier to handle than lithium-ion batteries as they are lighter.
- Transport and mobility- Hydrogen can be used in heavy transport, aviation and maritime transport.