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Art and Culture Previous Years UPSC Main Questions

2019 2019 1. Highlight the Central Asian and Greco-Bactrian elements in Gandhara art. 2018 2018 1. Safeguarding the Indian Art Heritage is the need of the moment. Discuss. 2. Assess the importance of the accounts of the Chinese and Arab Travellers in the reconstruction of the history of India. 3. The Bhakti movement received a […]

Social Empowerment- Reservation, Sex Ratio, Transgender and Triple Talaq etc

Reservation SUB CATEGORIZATION UNDER OBC Cabinet approved Extension of term of the commission constituted under Article 340 of the constitution to examine the issue of Sub-categorization within other Backward Classes in the Central List. Background: Article 14 of the Constitution guarantees equality before the law. That means un-equals cannot be treated equally. Measures are required to be taken for […]


Region The term region is difficult to define. It is understood in different ways in different contexts. However, it has been generally defined as “a homogeneous area with physical and cultural characteristics distinct from those of neighbouring areas”. Regionalism: Regionalism can be defined as a phenomenon in which people’s political loyalties become focused upon a […]


Meaning of Secularism Secularism is a principle which advocates the separation of religion from politics. It is the principle of separation of government institutions and persons mandated to represent the state from religious institutions and religious dignitaries. Thus, religion should be separate from aspects of state and governance. It promotes freedom within religions and equality […]


Definition: phenomenon of religious differences between groups that often leads to tension, and even rioting between them. In its not so violent manifestation, communalism amounts to discrimination against a religious group in matters such as employment or education A man of religion is not communal, but a man who practice politics by linking it with […]

Major Programmes Currently in the Area of Urban Development

• Pradhan Mantri Awas Yojana – Housing for All (HFA) (Urban Mission) was launched in June 2015 to provide housing to all in urban areas by 2022. • Atal Mission for Rejuvenation and Urban Transformation (AMRUT)- launched with the objective to provide hard infrastructure for universal coverage of piped drinking water, sewerage and green spaces […]

Urbanization and Associated phenomenon

INTRODUCTION Urbanization, indeed is the process of becoming urban, moving to cities, changing from agriculture to other pursuits common to cities, such as trade, manufacturing, industry and management, and corresponding changes of behaviour patterns. It is the process of expansion in the entire system of interrelationships by which population maintains itself in the habitat. Urbanization […]

State of the World Population 2019

tate of the World Population 2019, the flagship report of the United Nations Population Fund (UNFPA), has been released. India- specific findings: India accounts for over one-sixth of the world’s population in 2019 (1.37 billion out of 7.71 billion). It has grown at a rate (1.2% per year between 2010 and 2019) that is just over […]

Population and Associated Issues- Misc & Current Events

What is a randomised controlled trial? The new Economics Nobel laureates – Abhijit Banerjee, Esther Duflo and Michael Kremer – are considered to be instrumental in using randomised controlled trials to test the effectiveness of various policy interventions to alleviate poverty. What is a randomised controlled trial? It is an experiment that is designed to isolate the influence […]

Population and Associated Issues – Growth and other Issues

Population Issues Population Problems of Underdeveloped Countries Problems of Over-population • Rapid population growth • Unemployment • Poor standards of living • Slow growth of industry: The labour force though large in number is unskilled and has no background of industrial employment • Traditional attitudes militating against change  Problems of Under-Population • Uneven Distribution of […]