- There are reports of a glacier breaking off in the Sumna area, located close to the Indo-China border in Uttarakhand.
- The Border Roads Organisation (BRO) Commander concerned had informed them that reports of such an incident had been received and teams were being sent to the area.
GS-I: Geography (Physical Geography, Distribution of Key Natural Resources, Water Resources, Important Geophysical Phenomena), GS-III: Geography (Various Security Forces & Agencies & Their Mandate)
Dimensions of the Article:
- What is a Glacier?
- Why does a glacier break?
- Where has this “glacier break” happened?
- About the Border Roads Organisation (BRO)
What is a Glacier?
- A glacier is a persistent body of dense ice that is constantly moving under its own weight. It is form by the accumulation of snow exceeds its ablation (melting and sublimation) over many years. It is the largest reservoir of fresh water on the Earth (75 percent of the world’s fresh water).
- Glaciers are unique because they are reservoir of fresh water, have sheer mass and their ability to move (Glaciers flow like very slow rivers). It may move in two ways- Internal flow is when the pressure and gravity on the ice in a glacier cause it to move downhill; Basal sliding is when an entire glacier moves because its base is slightly melted. Rivers, valleys and lakes are formed after melting of glaciers.
- As per National Snow & Ice Date Centre, it occupies about 10 percent of the world’s total area.
Why does a glacier break?
- Glacier break can happen due to erosion, a buildup of water pressure, an avalanche of rock or heavy snow, an earthquake or cryoseism, volcanic eruptions under the ice.
- It can also happen after a massive displacement of water in a glacial lake when a large portion of an adjacent glacier collapses into it.
- The direct causes of glacial lake outbursts are earthquake, heavy rainfall/snowmelt, long-term dam degradation, etc.
Where has this “glacier break” happened?
- Sumna is around 40 km ahead of Raini village — towards the China border — in the Chamoli district of Uttarakhand.
- Recently, upstream on the Rishiganga river near Raini village in the same Niti Valley, a glacial burst had occurred – leading to a flash flood in the Rishiganga and Dhauliganga rivers, and devastation at the site of two hydro power projects downstream.
Important Glaciers in India
|Batura Glacier||Jammu & Kashmir||Karakoram Mountain Range|
|Khurdopin Glacier||Jammu & Kashmir||Karakoram Mountain Range|
|Hispar Glacier||Jammu & Kashmir||Karakoram Mountain Range|
|Biafo Glacier||Jammu & Kashmir||Karakoram Mountain Range|
|Baltoro Glacier||Jammu & Kashmir||Karakoram Mountain Range|
|Chomolungma glacier||Jammu & Kashmir||Karakoram Mountain Range|
|Diamir Glacier||Jammu & Kashmir||Karakoram Mountain Range|
|Siachen Glacier||Jammu & Kashmir||Karakoram Mountain Range|
|Gangotri Glacier||Uttarkashi, Uttarakhand||Himalayas|
|Milam Glacier||Uttarakhand||Trishul peak of Pithoragarh|
|Pindari glacier||Nanda Devi, Uttarakhand||Upper reaches of the Kumaon Himalayas|
|Zemu Glacier||Sikkim||Eastern Himalaya Located on Kanchenjunga peak|
About the Border Roads Organisation (BRO)
- The Border Roads Organisation (BRO) develops and maintains road networks in India’s border areas and friendly neighboring countries.
- Currently, the organisation maintains operations in twenty-one states, one UT (Andaman and Nicobar Islands), and neighboring countries such as Afghanistan, Bhutan, Myanmar, and Sri Lanka.
- Presently, BRO is also involved in the construction of a tunnel at the Rohtang pass which is estimated to be ready by 2019.
- The BRO operates in 18 Projects namely: Arunank, Beacon, Brahmank, Chetak, Deepak, Dantak, Himank, Hirak, Pushpak, Sampark, Setuk, Sewak, Shivalik, Swastik, Udayak, Vartak, Vijayak and sela tunnel.
- The organisation’s operations are spread across India, Bhutan, Myanmar, Tajikistan, and Afghanistan.
- The BRO was formed on 7 May 1960 to secure India’s borders and develop infrastructure in remote areas of the north and north-east states of the country.
- The BRO consists of Border Roads Wing under the Ministry of Defense and the General Reserve Engineer Force (GREF). Officers are selected through the Indian Engineering Services (IES) Examination conducted by the Union Public Service Commission (UPSC).
-Source: The Hindu