Focus: GS I- Modern History
Why in News?
On 23rd July, India paid tribute to the freedom fighter Chandra Shekhar Azad on his birth anniversary.
About Chandra Shekhar Azad:
- Birth: 23rd July 1906
- Place: Alirajpur district of Madhya Pradesh.
- Early Life: Chandra Shekhar, then a 15-year-old student, joined a Non-Cooperation Movement in December 1921. As a result, he was arrested.
- Death: He died at Azad Park in Allahabad on 27th February 1931.
- On being presented before a magistrate, he gave his name as “Azad” (The Free), his father’s name as “Swatantrata” (Independence) and his residence as “Jail” .Therefore, he came to be known as Chandra Shekhar Azad.
Contribution to Freedom Movement:
Hindustan Republican Association (HRA)
- After the suspension of the non-cooperation movement in 1922 by Gandhi, Azad joined Hindustan Republican Association (HRA).
- HRA was a revolutionary organization of India established in 1924 in East Bengal by Sachindra Nath Sanyal, Narendra Mohan Sen and Pratul Ganguly as an offshoot of Anushilan Samiti.
- Members: Bhagat Singh, Chandra Shekhar Azad, Sukhdev, Ram Prasad Bismil, Roshan Singh, Ashfaqulla Khan, Rajendra Lahiri.
- Most of the fund collection for revolutionary activities was done through robberies of government property.
- In line with the same, Kakori Train Robbery near Kakori, Lucknow was done in 1925 by HRA.
- The plan was executed by Chandra Shekhar Azad, Ram Prasad Bismil, Ashfaqulla Khan, Rajendra Lahiri, and Manmathnath Gupta.
Hindustan Socialist Republican Association
- HRA was later reorganised as the Hindustan Socialist Republican Army (HSRA).
- It was established in 1928 at Feroz Shah Kotla in New Delhi by Chandra Shekhar Azad, Ashfaqulla Khan, Bhagat Singh, Sukhdev Thapar and Jogesh Chandra Chatterjee.
- HSRA planned the shooting of J. P. Saunders, a British Policeman at Lahore in 1928 to avenge the killing of Lala Lajpat Rai.