Focus: GS-III Disaster Management
Why in news?
Central Government has laid out the modalities for receipt of contributions/ grants from any person or institution for the purpose of disaster management in the National Disaster Response Fund (NDRF) as per Disaster Management (DM) Act, 2005.
The Disaster Management Act includes provision to encourage any person or institution to make a contribution to the NDRF.
National Disaster Response Fund (NDRF)
- National Disaster Response Fund (NDRF) is a fund managed by the Central Government for meeting the expenses for emergency response, relief and rehabilitation due to any threatening disaster situation or disaster.
- It is defined in the Disaster Management Act, 2005 (DM Act).
- It comes under the “Public Accounts” of Government of India under “Reserve Funds not bearing interest“.
- It was constituted to supplement the funds of the State Disaster Response Funds (SDRF) of the states to facilitate immediate relief in case of calamities of a severe nature.
- NDRF amount can be spent ONLY towards meeting the expenses for emergency response, relief and rehabilitation.
For projects aimed exclusively at reducing the risk, impact or effect of a disaster or threatening disaster situation a separate fund called National Disaster Mitigation Fund has to be constituted.
The requirement for funds beyond what is available under the NDRF is met through general budgetary resources.
- A National Calamity Contingency Duty (NCCD) is levied to finance the NDRF and additional budgetary support is provided as and when necessary.
- NDRF is financed through the levy of a cess on certain items, chargeable to excise and customs duty, and approved annually through the Finance Bill.
- Comptroller and Auditor General of India (CAG) audits the accounts of NDRF.
- Department of Agriculture and Cooperation under Ministry of Agriculture (MoA) monitors relief activities for calamities associated with drought, hailstorms, pest attacks and cold wave /frost while rest of the natural calamities are monitored by Ministry of Home Affairs (MHA).
Disaster Management Act, 2005
- The Disaster Management Act, 2005, provides for “the effective management of disasters and for matters connected there with or incidental thereto”, and extends to the whole of India.
- The Act calls for the establishment of National Disaster Management Authority (NDMA), with the Prime Minister of India as chairperson.
- The Act enjoins the Central Government to Constitute a National Executive Committee (NEC) to assist the National Authority.
- All State Governments are mandated under the Act to establish a State Disaster Management Authority (SDMA), with Chief Minister of the State as the Chairperson.
- The Chairperson of District Disaster Management Authority (DDMA) will be the Collector or District Magistrate or Deputy Commissioner of the district.
- The Act also provides for constituting a National Disaster Response Force “for the purpose of specialist response to a threatening disaster situation or disaster” under a Director General to be appointed by the Central Government.
- The Act also calls for establishing a National Institute of Disaster Management. Section
National Disaster Management Authority (NDMA)
- National Disaster Management Authority, abbreviated as NDMA, is an apex Body of Government of India, with a mandate to lay down policies for disaster management.
- NDMA was established through the Disaster Management Act enacted by the Government of India in 2005.
- Hence, NDMA is a Statutory body.
- NDMA is responsible for framing policies, laying down guidelines and best-practices for coordinating with the State Disaster Management Authorities (SDMAs) to ensure a holistic and distributed approach to disaster management.
- It is headed by the Prime Minister of India and can have up to nine other members. Since 2014, there have been four other members.
- The tenure of the members of the NDMA shall be five years.
- The phrase disaster management is to be understood to mean ‘a continuous and integrated process of planning, organising, coordinating and implementing measures, which are necessary or expedient for prevention of danger or threat of any disaster, mitigation or reduction of risk of any disaster or severity of its consequences, capacity building, preparedness to deal with any disaster, prompt response, assessing the severity or magnitude of effects of any disaster, evacuation, rescue, relief, rehabilitation and reconstruction’.