- Define the process of glocalization.
- Mention the difference b/w localization & glocalization.
- Mention the changes brought in the Indian culture by glocalization.
The term ‘glocalization’ is an amalgamation of two terms ‘globalization’ and ‘localization’. It was originated by the economists of Japan, and popularised by Ronald Robertson. It is the simultaneous occurrence of particularisation and universalization of a service or product to suit the contemporary social settings. This entails the adaptation of the globally marketed product/service to the culture of the place to fit the needs of local consumers. Thus, in glocalization, more interest is shown by the consumers towards the product/service.
Difference between localization & glocalization: localization & glocalization are very similar and complement each other. Localization is the process of adapting a product for specific regions, i.e., it tries to penetrate a specific market that is unique to only a specific culture. Whereas in glocalization, the product is tailored for localization, but its reach is on the global levels, not targeted towards specific markets. Thus, the difference is captured only by the scale of reach of the products/services.
Impact on Indian societal culture: glocalization has responded to the expanding market in India. It has created cultural identities by changing a foreign culture to be subjectively domestic. Glocalization has encouraged innovation & diversity.
The effect of glocalization is most starkly seen in India’s food culture where people are more inclined to eat from brands like KFC, McDonalds, which have modified their products to suit Indian taste buds. For e.g., McDonalds has replaced beef burgers with aloo tikki burgers, paneer burgers & fish rolls. Dominos has introduced few foreign flavours in the Indian market like veg Hawaiian delight, chicken Mexicana, that have taken the attention of Indian consumers. Besides, brands also name their products suiting Indianness like Lays’ India’s Magic Masala, or kettle cooked Punjabi tadka masala – reflecting India’s way of cooking in ‘handis’. These brands even offer lucrative combos during festive seasons to draw customers.
Also, many foreign apparel brands are selling Indian attires like sari, kurti, sherwani, yet with a tinge or mix of foreign and Indian designs. Many Indian business brands are marketing their products under seemingly foreign names – e.g., Allen Solly, Louis Philippe are brands of Aditya Birla Group. Even in music, we see a rise in rap, pop culture, which were hitherto unknown in India. Many music composers have composed rap songs, pop songs, but with the Indian lyrics, creating a new style of hybrid-music. Even some foreign movies are being released in India dubbed in Hindi and few regional languages. People now increasingly prefer to see Amazon Prime or Netflix, and many Indian OTT platforms like Voot, Alt Balaji, Hoichoi, have come up to compete with these foreign OTTs.
Indian people have been accommodative and have received all these cultural changes very spontaneously. Glocalization has encouraged diversity of choices for consumers, opening new vistas to international markets. It has also promoted transcreation, going beyond localization, to keep the spirit of the brand to the new consumers on international marketing campaigns.