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Approach:

  1. Intro – define AMR.
  2. Mention the different types of AMR.
  3. Mention the preventive steps taken – by India & Globally.
  4. Conclusion.

Antimicrobials are agents intended to kill or inhibit the growth of microbes. They include antibiotics, fungicides, antiviral agents and parasiticides. Disinfectants, antiseptics, other pharmaceuticals and natural products may also have antimicrobial properties. AMR occurs when microbes become resistant to antimicrobial treatments. Superbugs are strains of micro-organisms that are resistant to most of the medications.

Different Types of Antimicrobial Resistance:

  • Natural (intrinsic, structural) resistance: This is caused by the structural characteristics of microbes. It has no hereditary
  • Acquired resistance: Due to changes in the genetic characteristics of microbes, acquired resistance occurs since it is unaffected by the previous antimicrobial. It occurs mainly due to structures of chromosomes or extra-chromosomal such as plasmid, transposon, and others.
  • Cross resistance: Some microorganisms are resistant to a certain drug that acts with a similar mechanism. However, sometimes it can also be seen in completely unrelated drug groups. This is observed against antibiotics whose structures are similar.
  • Multi-drug resistance and pan-resistance:This means that a particular drug is no longer able to kill or control the bacteria.

Steps Taken to Control Anti-Microbial Resistance :

  1) India:

  • The Government of India has banned the use of streptomycin and tetracycline in agriculture and the growth promotional use of colistin in poultry farming.
  • National Programme on AMR Containment was launched during 12th FYP in 2012-17. Under this programme, AMR Surveillance Network has been strengthened by establishing labs in State Medical Colleges. 30 sites in 24 states have been included in this network till 30th March 2021.
  • Delhi Declaration on AMR is an inter-ministerial consensus was signed by the ministers of the concerned ministries pledging their support in AMR containment.
  • Red Line campaign: To prevent irrational use of prescription-only antibiotics and create awareness on the dangers of taking antibiotics without prescription.

    2) Global:

  • Small companies are funded from public-private partnerships like CARB-X (the Combating Antibiotic Resistance Bacteria Biopharmaceutical Accelerator). It has provided more than $360 million in funding for 92 antibacterial projects over the past five years.
  • The U.S. enacted the Generating Antibiotic Incentives Now Act (GAIN Act) of 2012. It provides benefits to manufacturers of Qualified Infectious Disease Products (QIDPs) including five years of additional non-patent exclusivity.
  • The WHO launched the Global Action Plan (GAP) on AMRin 2015. It outlines five objectives: (a) Improve awareness and understanding of antimicrobial resistance through effective communication, education and training; (b) Strengthen the knowledge and evidence base through surveillance and research; (c) Reduce the incidence of infection through effective sanitation, hygiene and infection prevention measures; (d) Optimize the use of antimicrobial medicines in human and animal health; (e) Develop the economic case for sustainable investment in new medicines, diagnostic tools, vaccines and other interventions.

The development of resistance to antimicrobials is a major public health problem all over the world. It makes even minor infections tough to treat, causing severe illnesses and deaths. Hence a clarion call to end this menace must be taken at local, national and global levels that would eventually help in attainment of SDG 3 i.e., ensuring good health and wellbeing for all.

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