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Editorials/Opinions Analysis For UPSC 11 November 2023

  1. Unending Ordeal On Prevention of Ragging
  2. On Semiconductor Fabrication in India


Numerous laws and regulations aimed at prohibiting the practice of ragging on college campuses have proven ineffective in putting an end to the inhumane treatment that junior students endure at the hands of their sadistic seniors.



  • Education
  • Government Policies and Intervention

Mains Question:

Why does ragging persist in India despite numerous laws and regulations? Analysing the steps taken by government in this regard, suggest a way forward strategy to effectively deal with ragging in colleges. (15 marks, 250 words).

Ragging in India:

  • Despite society being alarmed by horrifying cases of ragging, including brutalization and murder, a vicious cycle persists, with victims becoming perpetrators in subsequent years.
  • Ragging, once an act of indiscipline, has evolved into a criminal behavior, taking various perverse and cruel forms, including sexual abuse, with the aim of dehumanizing the victims.
  • Although ragging is no longer a universal occurrence on campuses, the harassment extends beyond the initial months of the academic year.

Analysis of the Steps taken in this Regard:

  • The R.K. Raghavan Committee, appointed by the Supreme Court, identified the causes of ragging and suggested actionable remedies in its 2007 report, categorizing ragging as a manifestation of psychopathic behavior and deviant personalities.
  • Despite recommendations from committees such as the University Grants Commission (UGC) in 1999 and regulations like ‘The UGC Regulations on Curbing the Menace of Ragging in Higher Educational Institutions 2009,’ many state laws only focus on prohibition rather than prevention.
  • Despite being among the first states to enact anti-ragging legislation, West Bengal and Tamil Nadu have recently witnessed instances of severe brutality inflicted upon students. The death of a 17-year-old boy in Jadavpur University and the physical and mental torment suffered by a second-year undergraduate at PSG College of Technology highlight the persistent gaps in the system.

Steps Needed in this Direction:

  • Institutions must foster an environment where teachers and hostel wardens, not distant parents, are the primary point of contact for victims.
  • There should be increased accountability for educational institutions in preventing ragging, as suggested by the Raghavan panel.
  • Regulatory authorities must ensure a ragging-free campus, directly impacting the maintenance of academic standards.
  • Governments must earnestly implement regulations to ensure campus safety for students.


The primary responsibility for curbing ragging lies with educational institutions. It is crucial for media and civil society to actively participate in efforts to control this issue. While the Supreme Court rightly notes that declaring ragging as a cognizable offense may not be sufficient, considering that students attending educational institutions should not live in fear of the police, recent incidents have led to the establishment of guidelines to address the menace of ragging. The court has also taken on the responsibility of ensuring the prompt resolution of matters related to ragging. Strict implementation of these laws is necessary to erase the lingering memories of the adverse impact of ragging.


With production-linked incentives (PLI) for semiconductor manufacturing funds being underutilized by over 80%, the Union government needs to provide clearer insights into its achievements and objectives. The PLI scheme for IT hardware has a budget of ₹17,000 crores, while the one for semiconductors and displays has earmarked ₹38,601 crores.


GS 2- Policies & Interventions

GS 3-

  • Growth & Development
  • Indigenization of Technology
  • Industry and Infrastructure

Mains Question:

The current schemes in the semiconductor sector exhibit limited potential on their own in terms of employment and substantial value addition. Discuss critically. (15 marks, 250 words).

Reasons for Shortcomings in Semiconductor Sector Sector in India:

  • Substantial amounts of money continue to be allocated for expanding semiconductor fabrication capabilities in India. Existing schemes exhibit limited promise in terms of employment and substantial value addition.
  • The production of chips, crucial components for various hardware and appliances, involves advanced and automated systems, resulting in relatively few job opportunities despite the significant value generated in sales.
  • While significant spending in the national interest, as seen in defense expenditures, may not necessarily translate into domestic employment, the government’s central focus with these schemes is on attracting an “ecosystem” that enhances the value addition in India’s electronics manufacturing sector. However, achieving this outcome is far from guaranteed, even if PLI benefits are fully utilized.
  • The success of these schemes also depends on global manufacturing giants forgoing the benefits of a globally distributed supply chain, which includes cost-effective and accessible international transport facilities for chips.
  • Although some initiatives, like the design-linked incentive scheme, show promise, a significant portion of the capital is still directed towards the assembly and subsidization of large manufacturing plants, with a substantial amount of raw and intermediate materials still being imported.
  • Despite incentives, multinational chipmakers are hesitant to make substantial commitments, and private capital is in a state of uncertainty due to rapid advancements in chips and emerging technologies like artificial intelligence.

Way Forward:

  • The collection of PLI schemes remains a speculative endeavor, requiring additional efforts to strengthen India’s position, such as encouraging the development of semiconductor design talent domestically.
  • Therefore, these expenditures should be tied to tangible outcomes, whether it is safeguarding cyber sovereignty to protect against supply chain shocks, making electronics more affordable for Indian consumers, or establishing India as a global electronics manufacturing center.


Clearly defined objectives would facilitate the identification of failures and allow for course correction before significant PLI spending occurs with little to show for the investment.

December 2023