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Housing Issues Take Center Stage in 2024 General Elections

Context:

As India’s 2024 general elections unfold, housing emerges as a crucial issue, with political parties vying for voter support by promising schemes and affordable housing initiatives. The country, home to approximately 1.7 million homeless individuals according to the 2011 Census, grapples with significant housing challenges. Even for those with homes, concerns persist regarding the quality of construction, overcrowding, and inadequate amenities and infrastructure.

Relevance:

GS II: Government policies and Interventions

Dimensions of the Article:

  1. Pradhan Mantri Awas Yojana-Gramin (PMAY-G):
  2. Pradhan Mantri Awas Yojana (PMAY- U: Housing for All – Urban)
  3. PMAY Achievements

Pradhan Mantri Awas Yojana-Gramin (PMAY-G):

Scheme Objective:

  • The primary aim of PMAY-G is to provide pucca houses with essential amenities.

Target Beneficiaries:

  • The scheme caters to individuals who do not own a house and those residing in kutcha houses or severely damaged houses.

Minimum House Size:

  • Currently, houses under the PMAY-G scheme must have a minimum size of 25 sq. mt. with a hygienic cooking space.

Concerned Ministry:

  • The Ministry of Rural Development is responsible for the implementation of PMAY-G.

Cost Sharing:

  • In plain areas, the cost is shared in a 60:40 ratio between the Central and State governments, providing Rs. 1.20 lakh of assistance per unit.
  • In Himalayan states, north-eastern states, and the UT of Jammu & Kashmir, the ratio is 90:10, with up to Rs. 1.30 lakh of assistance per unit.
  • Union Territories, including Ladakh, receive 100% financing from the Centre.

Beneficiary Identification:

  • Beneficiaries are identified using parameters from the Socio-Economic and Caste Census (SECC) 2011 data, verified by Gram Sabhas.

Additional Benefits:

  • Beneficiaries are entitled to 90/95 person-days of unskilled labor under Mahatma Gandhi National Rural Employment Guarantee Scheme (MGNREGS).
  • Assistance for constructing toilets, up to Rs. 12,000, is provided under Swachh Bharat Mission-Gramin (SBM-G) in collaboration with MGNREGS or other schemes.

Electronic Payments:

  • Payments are made electronically directly to bank accounts or post office accounts linked to Aadhaar.

Pradhan Mantri Awas Yojana (PMAY- U: Housing for All – Urban)

  • The Pradhan Mantri Awas Yojana (Urban) Programme launched by the Ministry of Housing and Urban Poverty Alleviation (MoHUPA), in Mission mode envisions provision of Housing for All by 2022, when the Nation completes 75 years of its Independence.
  • The Mission seeks to address the housing requirement of urban poor including slum dwellers through following programme verticals:
    • Slum rehabilitation of Slum Dwellers with participation of private developers using land as a resource
    • Promotion of Affordable Housing for weaker section through credit linked subsidy
    • Affordable Housing in Partnership with Public & Private sectors
    • Subsidy for beneficiary-led individual house construction /enhancement.
  • The mission seeks to address the housing requirement of urban poor including slum dwellers. A slum is defined as a compact area of at least 300 people or about 60 – 70 households of poorly built congested tenements in unhygienic environment usually with inadequate infrastructure and lacking in proper sanitary and drinking water facilities.
  • Mission will be implemented as Centrally Sponsored Scheme (CSS) except for the component of credit linked subsidy which will be implemented as a Central Sector Scheme.
  • “Housing for All” Mission for urban area is being implemented during 2015-2022 and this Mission will provide central assistance to implementing agencies through States and UTs for providing houses to all eligible families/beneficiaries by 2022.
Coverage area

The Mission covers the entire urban area consisting of:

  • Statutory Towns
  • Notified Planning Areas
  • Development Authorities
  • Special Area Development Authorities
  • Industrial Development Authorities or
  • Any such authority under State legislation which is entrusted with the functions of urban planning & regulations

PMAY Achievements:

Under PMAY-U:

  • A total of 118.63 lakh houses have been sanctioned.
  • Out of these, 78.15 lakh houses have been constructed/delivered by December 2023.

Under PMAY-G:

  • States/UTs have been allocated a target of 2.95 crore houses under PMAY-G.
  • More than 2.94 crore houses have been sanctioned for eligible beneficiaries.
  • Over 2.55 crore houses have been completed so far.

Funding:

  • Both rural and urban components of PMAY received Rs. 80,671 crores in the interim budget released in February 2024.

-Source: The Hindu


May 2024
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