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Mangrove Alliance For Climate

Context:

At the 27th Session of Conference of Parties (COP27), this year’s UN climate summit, the Mangrove Alliance for Climate (MAC) was launched with India as a partner.

Relevance:

GS III: Environment and Ecology

Dimensions of the Article:

  1. About Mangrove Alliance for Climate (MAC)
  2. Mangrove Forests: Presence and Significance
  3. The current state of the mangroves

About Mangrove Alliance for Climate (MAC) :

  • An initiative led by the United Arab Emirates (UAE) and Indonesia, the Mangrove Alliance for Climate (MAC) includes India, Sri Lanka, Australia, Japan, and Spain.
  • It seeks to educate and spread awareness worldwide on the role of mangroves in curbing global warming and its potential as a solution for climate change.
  • UAE’s Minister of Climate Change and the Environment, while launching the alliance, said that her country intends to plant 3 million mangroves in the next two months, in keeping with UAE’s COP26 pledge of planting 100 million mangroves by 2030.
  • However, the intergovernmental alliance works on a voluntary basis which means that there are no real checks and balances to hold members accountable.
    • Instead, the parties will decide their own commitments and deadlines regarding planting and restoring mangroves.
    • The members will also share expertise and support each other in researching, managing and protecting coastal areas.

Mangrove Forests: Presence and Significance

  • Mangrove forests comprise the interface between wetlands and sea grass meadows along a vast expanse of tropical shorelines all over the world.
  • They also occur along bays, estuaries or mouths of rivers by these shores.
  • Mangroves are present worldwide on various shorelines between approximately 25°N and 25°S latitude.
  • Mangrove forests are one of the greatest sources of biodiversity on this planet.
  • They have a rich underwater component, a surface component and an aerial component.
  • Mangrove communities include fish, insects, shellfish, birds of many species, saltwater crocodiles, monkeys, algae and fungi.
  • Many organisms, especially fish, spend their early years in the protection of the mangroves and their intricate below and above-ground root systems.

How are Mangrove Forests Useful?

  • Mangroves, along with sea grasses and wetlands, comprise the ‘blue carbon’ ecosystem of stored carbon in sediments along many tropical and subtropical coastal zones.
  • Their complex aerial and submerged root systems moderate current flows and the canopies moderate wind flow — they are the interface between the wetlands and sea grass communities for the continental flow of water and solutes into the ecosystem.
  • Mangroves also supply fuelwood and other forest products, like food and medicine, for people.
  • And, in addition to the nutrition they give us, mangroves protect us — along with other trees and forests, mangroves sequester a sizeable amount of carbon to offset greenhouse gas emissions created by human activities.
  • When mangrove trees die of natural causes, they generally fall into the sea and the carbon may be stored in the sediment on the sea floor for long periods of time.

Types of Mangrove Trees

  • The term ‘mangrove’ is used to refer to a whole community of trees and shrubs, which are not closely related.
  • The Mangrove trees have all adapted to harsh coastal environments of saline, brackish waters and low oxygen conditions.
  • There are over 100 species of trees and shrubs designated as mangroves.
  • However, there are three classic groups of mangroves — the red mangroves (Rhizophoraceae), the black mangroves (Acanthaceae) and the white mangroves (Combretaceae).

The current state of the mangroves

  • South Asia houses some of the most extensive areas of mangroves globally, while Indonesia hosts one-fifth of the overall amount.
  • India holds around 3 percent of South Asia’s mangrove population.
  • Besides the Sundarbans in West Bengal, the Andamans region, the Kachchh and Jamnagar areas in Gujarat too have substantial mangrove cover.
  • However, infrastructure projects — industrial expansion and building of roads and railways, and natural processes — shifting coastlines, coastal erosion and storms, have resulted in a significant decrease in mangrove habitats.
  • Between 2010 and 2020, around 600 sq km of mangroves were lost of which more than 62% was due to direct human impacts, the Global Mangrove Alliance said in its 2022 report.

-Source: Indian Express


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