- BLACK CARBON
- ATMANIRBHAR BHARAT ROJGAR YOJANA
- SHANGHAI COOPERATION ORGANIZATION
Focus: GS III- Environment
Why in news?
A new study has said that black Carbon has a significant adverse effect on human health and leads to premature mortality.
What is Black Carbon?
- Black carbon is a potent climate-warming component of particulate matter formed by the incomplete combustion of fossil fuels, wood and other fuels.
- Complete combustion would turn all carbon in the fuel into carbon dioxide (CO2), but combustion is never complete and CO2, carbon monoxide, volatile organic compounds, and organic carbon and black carbon particles are all formed in the process.
- The complex mixture of particulate matter resulting from incomplete combustion is often referred to as soot.
- BC is a short-lived pollutant that is the second-largest contributor to warming the planet behind carbon dioxide (CO2). Unlike other greenhouse gas emissions, BC is quickly washed out and can be eliminated from the atmosphere if emissions stop.
- Deposits of BC act in two ways hastening the pace of glacier melt: by decreasing surface reflectance of sunlight and by raising air temperature.
Adverse Effects of Black Carbon
- Black carbon is a short-lived climate pollutant with a lifetime of only days to weeks after release in the atmosphere.
- During this short period of time, black carbon can have significant direct and indirect impacts on the climate, glacial regions, agriculture and human health.
- Several studies have demonstrated that measures to prevent black carbon emissions can reduce near-term warming of the climate, increase crop yields and prevent premature deaths.
- Black carbon absorbs solar energy and warms the atmosphere.
- When it falls to earth with precipitation, it darkens the surface of snow and ice, reducing their albedo (the reflecting power of a surface), warming the snow, and hastening melting.
ATMANIRBHAR BHARAT ROJGAR YOJANA
Focus: GS II- Government schemes
Why in News?
The Union Cabinet, chaired by the Prime Minister has given its approval for extending the terminal date for registration of beneficiaries for availing the benefit under Aatmanirbhar Bharat Rojgar Yojana (ABRY) for another nine months i.e. from 30th June, 2021 to 31st March, 2022.
About the Atmanirbhar Bharat Rojgar Yojana (ABRY):
- It is aimed at incentivising the creation of new employment opportunities during the Covid-19 economic recovery phase.
- It will provide subsidy for provident fund contribution for adding new employees to establishments registered with the Employees’ Provident Fund Organisation (EPFO).
- Government will pay both 12% employees’ contribution and 12% employers’ contribution i.e. 24% of wages towards EPF in respect of new employees in establishments employing upto 1000 employees for two years.
- Government will pay only employees’ share of EPF contribution i.e. 12% of wages in respect of new employees in establishments employing more than 1000 employee for two years.
- The subsidy amount under the scheme will be credited upfront only in Aadhaar-seeded EPFO accounts (UAN) of new employees.
Eligibility Criteria for Establishments:
- Establishments registered with EPFO will be eligible for the benefits if they add new employees compared to the reference base of employees as in September 2020.
- Establishments, with up to 50 employees, would have to add a minimum of two new employees.
- The organisations, with more than 50 employees, would have to add at least five employees.
- Any new employee joining employment in EPFO registered establishments on monthly wages less than Rs. 15,000.
- Those who left their job between 1st March to 30th September and are employed on or after 1st October.
- Time Period: The scheme extended the terminal date for registration of beneficiaries for availing the benefit under Aatmanirbhar Bharat Rojgar Yojana (ABRY) for another nine months i.e. from 30th June, 2021 to 31st March, 2022.
SHANGHAI COOPERATION ORGANIZATION
Focus: GS II- International Groupings
Why in News?
Union Minister for Health and Family Welfare addressed a meeting with Ministers of Health of the Shanghai Cooperation Organisation (SCO) countries through video-conference.
- It highlighted the need for greater collaboration between countries on various aspects of health.
- Also highlighted that it is desirable that we should continue to exchange our experiences, learnings, best practices as well as innovations to strengthen our public health systems.
- Global crisis is further compounded by these ever-evolving new variants of the Corona-virus and that risk management and mitigation are required along with continued strengthening of global partnerships besides prioritization of investment in public health.
About Shanghai Cooperation Organization (SCO);-
- It is a permanent intergovernmental international organization.
- It’s creation was announced on 15 June 2001 in Shanghai (China) by the Republic of Kazakhstan, the People’s Republic of China, the Kyrgyz Republic, the Russian Federation, the Republic of Tajikistan, and the Republic of Uzbekistan.
- It was preceded by the Shanghai Five mechanism.
- The Shanghai Cooperation Organisation Charter was signed during the St. Petersburg SCO Heads of State meeting in June 2002, and entered into force on 19 September 2003.
- The SCO’s official languages are Russian and Chinese.
- Its membership was expanded to include India and Pakistan in 2017.
- The SCO also has four observer states i.e. Afghanistan, Iran, Belarus and Mongolia, which may be inducted at a later date.
- Headquarters: Beijing, China.
Above Image includes all the SCO members.
Organizational Structure of SCO;-
- The organization has two permanent bodies i.e. the SCO Secretariat based in Beijing and the Executive Committee of the Regional Anti-Terrorist Structure (RATS) based in Tashkent.
- The SCO Secretary-General and the Director of the Executive Committee of the SCO RATS are appointed by the Council of Heads of State for a term of three years.
- However, the venue of the SCO council meetings moves between the eight members.
- SCO has the capacity to counterbalance North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO), therefore, it is sometimes considered as “alliance of the East”, i.e, the Eastern complementary of NATO.
The SCO’s main goals are as follows:-
- Strengthening mutual trust and neighborliness among the member states.
- Promoting their effective cooperation in politics, trade, the economy, research, technology and culture, as well as in education, energy, transport, tourism, environmental protection, and other areas.
- Making joint efforts to maintain and ensure peace, security and stability in the region and moving towards the establishment of a democratic, fair and rational new international political and economic order.