- E-DAAKHIL PORTAL
- ACTIVE PHARMACEUTICAL INGREDIENTS
Focus: GS II-Polity and Governance
Why in news?
E-Daakhil portal for Consumer grievance redressal is now operational in 15 States/UTs. Department of Consumer Affairs is now proactively following up with the states to launch e-filing portal at their ends.
About E-Daakhil portal:
- It is launched by National Consumer Dispute Redressal Commission.
- The e-daakhil portal empowers the consumer and their advocates to file consumer complaints online.
- It also facilitates to male payment of requisite fees online from anywhere in order to redress their complaints.
- The site of the e-Daakhil Portal was developed and is maintained by the National Information Centre (NIC) under the Ministry of Electronics & Information Technology.
- This portal has been developed under the Consumer Protection Act, 2019.
National consumer dispute redressal commission:
Nodal Ministry: Ministry of consumer affairs and public distribution
- The Consumer Protection Act was passed in 1986 to protect the interests of the consumers.( quasi- judicial body)
- The objective of this law is to provide a simple, fast and inexpensive mechanism to the citizens to redress their grievances in specified cases.
The Act envisages a three-tier quasi-judicial machinery at the National, State and District levels:
i. National Consumer Disputes Redressal Commission known as “National Commission”;
ii. State Consumer Disputes Redressal Commission known as “State Commission”;
iii. District Consumer Disputes Redressal Forum – known as “District Forum”.
ACTIVE PHARMACEUTICAL INGREDIENTS
Focus: GS II- Health
Why in news?
Government of India has prohibited the exports of Injection Remdesivir and Remdesivir Active Pharmaceutical Ingredients (API) till the situation improves.
Active Pharmaceutical Ingredients:
- Every medicine is made up of two main ingredients — the chemically active APIs and chemically inactive, excipients, which is a substance that delivers the effect of APIs to one’s system.
- API is a chemical compound that is the most important raw material to produce a finished medicine.
- In medicine, API produces the intended effects to cure the disease. For instance, Paracetamol is the API for Crocin and it is the API paracetamol that gives relief from body ache and fever.
- Fixed-dose combination drugs use multiple APIs, while single-dose drugs like Crocin use just one API.
How an API is manufactured?
- API is not made by only one reaction from the raw materials but rather it becomes an API via several chemical compounds. The chemical compound which is in the process of becoming an API from raw material is called an intermediate.
- There are some APIs that pass “through over ten kinds of intermediates in a process when it changes from being a raw material into an API”. The long manufacturing process is continued until it is purified and reaches a very high degree of purity.
- It is an experimental drug and has not yet been licensed or approved anywhere globally. It has not been demonstrated to be safe or effective for any use.
- It is currently being developed for the treatment of Ebola virus infection.
- Remdesivir and chloroquine effectively inhibit the recently emerged novel coronavirus (2019-nCoV) in vitro.
- Chloroquine is a “widely used” anti-malarial and autoimmune disease medicine that has recently come to light as a potential antiviral drug.