STATE FORMATION DAY
Focus: GS 1 ; Post-independence consolidation and reorganization within the country.
Why in News?
PM greets people of Andhra Pradesh on its Formation Day.
About State Reorganization Act 1956
- At the time of independence in 1947, India consisted of 571 disjointed princely states that were merged together to form 27 states.
- The grouping of states at the time was done on the basis of political and historical considerations rather than on linguistic or cultural divisions, but this was a temporary arrangement.
- The States Reorganization Act, 1956 was a major reform of the boundaries of India’s states and territories, organizing them along linguistic lines.
- In the 1950’s there was urging demand in the people, especially in the Telugu speaking population, for reorganization of states on lingual lines.
- Amarajeevi Potti Sreeramulu started indefinite fast for supporting his cause of states reorganization , after his death on 56th day of fast resulted in widespread violence and the government was forced to constitute a State Reorganization Commission.
- In 1953, the first state of Andhra Pradesh was created on basis of language.
- On the basis of the recommendations of State Reorganization Commission in 1956, 14 states and 6 UTs were created.
Above attached image at the time of India in 1956 after creating State Reorganization Act , the 14 States and 6 UT’s were created.
- Although additional changes to India’s state boundaries have been made since 1956, the States Reorganization Act of 1956 remains the single most extensive change in state boundaries since the independence of India in 1947.
Above attached image of view of Great Leaders of India, regarding states created based on Linguistic lines.
- The Act came into effect at the same time as the Constitution (7th Amendment) Act, 1956, which (among other things) restructured the constitutional framework for India’s existing states and the requirements to pass the States Reorganization Act, 1956 under the provisions of Part I of the Constitution of India, i.e. Articles 3 & 4.
Reasons for using Language as a Criteria for Division of states because as follows
- It would lead to the local people participating in the administration in larger numbers because of being able to communicate in a common language.
- Governance would be made easier in areas, which shared linguistic and geographical features.
- This would lead to the development of vernacular languages, which had long been ignored by the British.
About States Reorganization Commission
- The States Reorganization Commission (SRC) constituted by the Central Government of India on 22 December 1953 to recommend the reorganization of state boundaries.
- In 1955, after nearly two years of study, the Commission recommended that India’s state boundaries should be reorganized to form 14 states and 6 territories.
- The S. K. Dhar commission (1948) and JVP Committee (1948) advocated for reorganization of states based on geographical contiguity, administrative convenience, financial self-reliance and potential for development.
- However, with the sudden death of Potti Srirammalu following hunger strike in demand for Andhra state created a volatile situation and Fazl Ali Commission was set up (in 1953) and its recommendation for reorganization of state based on linguistic criteria was accepted.
- The States Reorganization Commission consisted of Fazal Ali , K.M.Panikkar and H.N.Kunzru. Some of its recommendations were implemented in the States Reorganization Act of 1956.
- In the light of the above discussion, it can be inferred that India due to its multi-cultural and linguistic diversity cannot ever satisfy all linguistic groups.
- Thus, there is a need to redraw the map of India with rational criteria to create equal opportunity for all states to develop.
- Nevertheless, it can trigger huge regional and political resistance. So, debate, discussion and deliberation are the need of the hour to create a favorable ground to accept reorganization of states through ‘fountain effect’ or ‘bottom up effect’ to create a strong Indian nation.
Above image of Present India that has 8 Union Territories and 28 States. The erstwhile state of Jammu and Kashmir has been bifurcated into two Union Territories (UT) of J&K and Ladakh.
About Zonal Council
- Zonal Councils are advisory councils and are made up of the states of India that have been grouped into five zones to foster cooperation among them. These were set up vide Part-III of the States Reorganization Act, 1956.
- The Zonal Councils are the statutory (and not the constitutional) bodies. They are established by an Act of the Parliament, that is, States Reorganization Act of 1956.
- The act divided the country into five zones (Northern, Central, Eastern, Western and Southern) and provided a zonal council for each zone.
- The Union Home Minister is the common chairman of the five Zonal Councils.
- While forming these zones, several factors have been taken into account which include the natural divisions of the country, the river systems and means of communication, the cultural and linguistic affinity and the requirements of economic development, security and law and order.
- In addition to the above Zonal Councils, a North-Eastern Council was created by a separate Act of Parliament i.e. the North-Eastern Council Act of 1971.
- These are advisory bodies that will discuss and make recommendations with regard to any matter of common interest in the field of economic and social planning between the Centre and States.
JAL JEEVAN MISSION
Focus: GS 2 ; Government policies and interventions for development in various sectors and issues arising out of their design and implementation.
Why in News?
Jal Shakti Ministry reviews progress of implementation of Jal Jeevan Mission in Mizoram.
Note : Please Click on this link and Refer 19th October 2020 PIB Regarding detailed explanation of Jal Jeevan Mission (JJM).
Focus: GS 4;Emotional intelligence-concepts, and their utilities and application in administration and governance.
Why in News?
IIT Bombay launches a self- help website to enhance emotional wellbeing of its students. Union Minister of State for Education, Shri. Sanjay Dhotre launched a self-help website “Bandhu” for students of IIT Bombay.
About Emotional Wellbeing
- Emotional well-being refers to the emotional quality an individual experiences.
- Emotional well-being is influenced by a variety of demographic, economic, and situational factors. For example, the onset of the COVID-19 outbreak, lowered emotional well-being by 74%.
- The implications of decreased emotional well-being are related to mental health concerns such as stress, depression, and anxiety.
Above image shows Overall Wellbeing of Human i.e. Physical, Spiritual and Emotional Wellbeing of Humans.
- These in turn, contribute to physical health concerns such as digestive disorders, sleep disturbances, and general lack of energy.
- On the positive side, enhanced emotional well-being is seen to contribute to upward spirals in increasing coping ability, self esteem, performance and productivity at work, and even longevity.
Above attached image relates to Advantages of Good Emotional Well Being.
Attached below image show how to Enhance Emotional Wellbeing
- Many of the government initiatives are there to improve and support Emotional wellbeing of citizens they are National Metal Health programme (NMHP https://www.nhp.gov.in/national-mental-health-programme_pG ), Mental Health Act 2017 etc.,
Focus: GS 1; Important Geophysical phenomena such as earthquakes, Tsunami, Volcanic activity, cyclone etc., geographical features and their location-changes in critical geographical features (including water-bodies and ice-caps) and in flora and fauna and the effects of such changes.
Why in News?
Union Minister Dr. Jitendra Singh inaugurates Mansar Lake Development Plan in Jammu.
About Surinsar-Mansar Lakes
- It is one of the 39 Ramsar Sites designated as Wetlands of International importance in India , located in Jammu & Kashmir UT.
- Surinsar Lake and Mansar Lake are considered to be twin lakes.
- Mansar Lake an estimated 12,000 years of existence.
- Mansar Lake, one of the largest freshwater lakes in the Shivalik range of the Jammu region, is facing an existential threat due to human intervention and climate change.
- The Surinsar Mansar Wildlife Sanctuary is nestled in the midst of both the lakes.
- The site is socially and culturally very important with many temples around owing to its mythical origin from the Mahabharata period.
- River Devika said to be the sister of mother Ganga, the Mansar lake finds reference in the ancient writings of Mahabharata.
- Surinsar is rain-fed without permanent discharge, and Mansar is primarily fed by surface runoff and partially by mineralized water through paddy fields, with inflow increasing in the rainy season.
- Currently, it is facing an existential threat due to human intervention and climate change.
Below attached image of Mansar lake in Jammu and Kashmir Union Territory (UT) .