- BUDDHA PURNIMA
- NATIONAL DISASTER RESPONSE FORCE
- KHELO INDIA SCHEME
Focus: GS I- Ancient History
Why in news?
Vice President greeted the nation on the eve of Buddha Purnima.
About Gautam Buddha:
- Buddha was born as Prince Siddhartha at Lumbini near Kapilavastu (in present Nepal) in 566 BC.
- He was the son of Suddhodhana and Mahamaya. Suddhodhana was the chief of the Sakya clan. Due to this, Buddha was also known as ‘Sakyamuni’.
- His mother died either giving birth to him or after seven days. Siddhartha was brought up by his maternal aunt, Prajapati Gautami. This gave him the name ‘Gautama’.
- He was married to Yashodhara and had a son, Rahula.
- He left his home at the age of 29 to become an ascetic. This event is called Mahabhishkramana.
- The idea of renunciation occurred to the Buddha after he saw four different states of man – sick man, old man, corpse and ascetic.
- Buddha wandered for seven years and at the age of 35 attained enlightenment under a Peepal tree This tree came to be known as ‘Bodhi tree’ and the place became Bodh Gaya (in Bihar).
- He gave his first sermon at Sarnath near Varanasi. This event is called Dharmachakra Pravartana/ Dhammachakkappavattana.
- He died in 483 BC under a Sal tree in Kushinagar (in UP). This event is called the Mahaparinirvana.
- Important contemporaries of Buddha were Mahavira Jaina, Kings Prasenjit, Bimbisara and Ajatasatru.
- Buddhism started in India over 2,600 years ago and It is one of the important religions of South and South-Eastern Asian countries.
- The religion is based upon the teachings, life experiences of its founder Siddhartha Gautam.
Four noble truths of Buddhism:
- Suffering (dukkha) is the essence of the world.
- Every suffering has a cause – Samudya.
- Suffering could be extinguished – Nirodha.
- It can be achieved by following the Atthanga Magga (Eight Fold Path).
Eight Fold Paths of Buddhism:
The path consists of various interconnected activities related to knowledge, conduct, and meditative practices.
- Right view
- Right intention
- Right speech
- Right action
- Right livelihood
- Right mindfulness
- Right effort
- Right concentration
Two main schools of Buddhism:
- It is one of the two main schools of Buddhism.
- The term Mahayana is a Sanskrit word which literally means “Great Vehicle”.
- It believes in the heavenliness of Buddha and Idol worship of Buddha and Bodhisattvas embodying Buddha Nature.
- It originated in northern India and Kashmir and then spread east into Central Asia, East Asia and some areas of Southeast Asia.
- Buddhist schools embedded in China, Korea, Tibet and Japan belong to the Mahayana tradition.
- Literally Lesser vehicle, also known as Abandoned Vehicle or Defective vehicle. It believes in the original teaching of Buddha or Doctrine of elders.
- It does not believe in Idol worship and tries to attain individual salvation through self discipline and meditation.
NATIONAL DISASTER RESPONSE FORCE
Focus: GS III- Disaster management
Why in news?
Cabinet approves Creation of one post of Director in Senior Administrative Grade (SAG), at National Disaster Response Force Academy, Nagpur.
Nodal: Ministry of Home Affairs
- The National Disaster Response Force (NDRF) is an Indian specialized force constituted “for the purpose of special response to a threatening disaster situation or disaster” under the Disaster Management Act, 2005.
- The “Apex Body for Disaster Management” in India is the National Disaster Management Authority (NDMA).
- The Chairman of the NDMA is the Prime Minister.
- The responsibility of managing disasters in India is that of the State Government.
- National Disaster Response Force (NDRF) is under the National Disaster Management Authority.
- Headquarter of NDRF located in Delhi.
- The head of the NDRF is designated as Director General.
- The Director Generals of NDRF are IPS officers on deputation from Indian police organisations.
- The NDRF is a top-heavy organisation which in addition to the Director General has several Inspector Generals (IG) and Deputy IGs, who fly flags and wear army-style badges of rank.
- National Disaster Response Force (NDRF) is a force of 12 battalions, organised on para-military lines, and manned by persons on deputation from the para-military forces of India.
- These NDRF battalions are located at twelve different locations in the country based on the vulnerability profile to cut down the response time for their deployment.
About NDRF Functions
- The aim of the National Disaster Management Authority is to build a safer and disaster resilient India by developing a holistic, proactive, multi-disaster and technology driven strategy for disaster management.
- This has to be achieved through a culture of prevention, mitigation and preparedness to generate a prompt and efficient response at the time of disasters.
- This national vision inter alia, aims at inculcating a culture of preparedness among all stakeholders.
- NDRF has proved its importance in achieving this vision by highly skilled rescue and relief operations, regular and intensive training and re-training, familiarization exercises within the area of responsibility of respective NDRF Battalions, carrying out mock drills and joint exercises with the various stakeholders.
- In addition to this, there are four battalions capable of handling as follows;-
- Nuclear and
- Chemical disasters.
KHELO INDIA SCHEME
Focus: GS II- Government policies and Intervention
Why in news?
The Sports Ministry has dedicated a total of 143 Khelo India Centres across 7 States. These centres will be entrusted with one sports discipline each. The States include Maharashtra, Mizoram, Goa, Karnataka, Madhya Pradesh, Arunachal Pradesh and Manipur.
About Khelo India Scheme
- The Khelo India programme has been introduced to revive the sports culture in India at the grass-root level by building a strong framework for all sports played in our country.
- It is implemented by the Ministry of Youth Affairs and Sports.
- Under the scheme, the talented players identified in priority sports disciplines at various levels (by the High-Powered Committee) will be provided annual financial assistance of INR 5 lakh per annum for 8 years.
Khelo India Scheme has four objectives:
- Conduct structured annual sports competition and encourage Mass participation of youth.
- Identify talent through these competitions.
- Guidance and nurturing of the talent through the existing and new infrastructure
- Creation of Sports infrastructure at various levels.
Khelo India Scheme has four components:
- Competition: Sports competition would be held at Block/District/State and National level.
- Sponsorship: Under Khelo India Scheme, the funding for sports promotion and development has switched from centrally aided scheme to Central Sector Scheme.
- Talent: Talented sportspersons among the participants form the competitions conducted are identified and are eligible for scholarships or admission into SAI (Sports Authority of India) Centres and Sports Academies. Sporting talent selected for Long Term Athlete Development (LTAD) receive financial assistance of Rs. 5 lakh per annum.
- Infrastructure: Infrastructure is being developed both in the existing SAI Centres as well as identifying new spaces for sports infrastructure.