- HEAT WAVE
- PRIME MINISTER FORMALIZATION OF THE MICRO FOOD PROCESSING ENTERPRISES SCHEME
Focus: GS I- Important Geophysical Phenomena
Why in news?
Highest maximum temperature of 43.3°C was reported at Bramhapuri (Vidarbha).
- A heat wave is a period of abnormally high temperatures, more than the normal maximum temperature that occurs during the summer season in the North-Western and South Central parts of India.
- Heat waves typically occur between March and June, and in some rare cases even extend till July.
- Higher daily peak temperatures and longer, more intense heat waves are becoming increasingly frequent globally due to climate change.
Criteria for Heat Waves
- The heat wave is considered when the maximum temperature of a station reaches at least 40°C for Plains and at least 30°C for Hilly regions.
- If the normal maximum temperature of a station is less than or equal to 40°C, then an increase of 5°C to 6°C from the normal temperature is considered to be heat wave condition.
- Further, an increase of 7°C or more from the normal temperature is considered as severe heat wave condition.
- If the normal maximum temperature of a station is more than 40°C, then an increase of 4°C to 5°C from the normal temperature is considered to be heat wave condition. Further, an increase of 6°C or more is considered as severe heat wave condition.
- Additionally, if the actual maximum temperature remains 45°C or more irrespective of normal maximum temperature, a heat wave is declared.
- The health impacts of Heat Waves typically involve dehydration, heat cramps, heat exhaustion and/or heat stroke.
- It also causes heat cramps, fatigue, weakness, dizziness, headache, nausea, vomiting, muscle cramps and sweating.
- The extreme temperatures and resultant atmospheric conditions adversely affect people living in these regions as they cause physiological stress, sometimes resulting in death.
Reasons why India is experiencing more heat waves are:
- Magnified effect of paved and concrete surfaces in urban areas and a lack of tree cover.
- Urban heat island effects can make ambient temperatures feel 3 to 4 degrees more than what they are.
- More heat waves were expected as globally temperatures had risen by an average 0.8 degrees in the past 100 years. Night-time temperatures are rising too.
- Higher daily peak temperatures and longer, more intense heat waves are becomingly increasingly frequent globally due to climate change.
- High intensity of UV rays in medium-high heat wave zone.
- Combination of exceptional heat stress and a predominantly rural population makes India vulnerable to heat waves.
PRIME MINISTER FORMALIZATION OF THE MICRO FOOD PROCESSING ENTERPRISES SCHEME
Focus: GS III- Agriculture
Why in news?
Ministry has approved ODOP for 707 districts of 35 States/UTs with 137 unique products
About PM-FME Scheme:
Nodal: Ministry of Food Processing Industries(MOFPI).
- It is a centrally sponsored scheme.
- Aim is to modernize and enhance the competitiveness of the existing individual micro enterprises and ensure their transition to formal sector
- To provide support to Farmer Producer Organizations, Self Help Groups, and Producers Cooperatives along their entire value chain.
- Duration: The PM-FME scheme will be implemented over a period of five years from 2020-21 to 2024-25 with an outlay of Rs 10,000 crore.
- Funding: The expenditure under the PM-FME scheme would be shared in 60:40 ratio between Central and State Governments, in 90:10 ratio with North Eastern and Himalayan States, 60:40 ratio with UTs with legislature and 100% by Centre for other UTs.
- Increase in access to finance by micro food processing units.
- Increase in revenues of target enterprises.
- Enhanced compliance with food quality and safety standards.
- Strengthening capacities of support systems.
- Transition from the unorganized sector to the formal sector.
- Special focus on women entrepreneurs and Aspirational districts.
- Focus on minor forest produce in Tribal Districts.
- Scheme is for All India basis.
- Support to Individual micro units:
- Micro enterprises will get credit linked subsidy @ 35% of the eligible project cost with ceiling of Rs.10 lakh.
- Beneficiary contribution will be minimum 10% and balance from loan.
- On-site skill training & Handholding for DPR and technical upgradation.
- Support to FPOs/SHGs/Cooperatives:
- Seed capital will be given to SHGs (@Rs. 4 lakh per SHG) for loan to members for working capital and small tools.
- Grant for backward/ forward linkages, common infrastructure, packaging, marketing & branding.
- Skill training & Handholding support.
- Credit linked capital subsidy.
One District, One Product
One District, One Product aims to revive these traditional heritages by reviving them through modernization and publicisation.
Objectives of the scheme:
- Preservation and development of local crafts / skills and promotion of the art.
- Increase in the incomes and local employment (resulting in decline in migration for employment).
- Improvement in product quality and skill development.
- Transforming the products in an artistic way (through packaging, branding)
- To connect the production with tourism (Live demo and sales outlet – gifts and souvenir)
- To resolve the issues of economic difference and regional imbalance
- To take the concept of ODOP to national and international level after successful implementation at State level.