- INTEGRATED SOLAR DRYER AND PYROLYSIS PILOT
- JAL JEEVAN MISSION
INTEGRATED SOLAR DRYER AND PYROLYSIS PILOT
Focus: GS III- Science and Technology
Why in news?
Foundation stone of the Integrated Solar Dryer and Pyrolysis pilot was laid by CSIR- Central Leather Research Institute (CLRI), Chennai to help smart cities transform urban organic waste into biochar & energy
- The foundation stone of the Integrated Solar Dryer and Pyrolysis pilot was laid by CSIR- Central Leather Research Institute (CLRI), Chennai on the occasion of 74th foundation day of CLRI on 23rd April 2021.
- The pilot is part of the Indo-German project ‘Pyrasol’ launched to transform urban organic waste into biochar and energy in smart cities.
- It was awarded to CSIR-CLRI by the Indo-German Science & Technology Centre.
- The project will ultimately lead to technology development for the joint processing of Fibrous Organic Waste (FOW) and Sewage Sludge (SS) of Indian smart cities into hygienic and highly valuable biochar associated with energy recovery, carbon sequestration and environmental improvement.
- Indo-German Science & Technology Centre (IGSTC) was established by the Department of Science & Technology (DST), Govt. of India & Federal Ministry of Education and Research (BMBF), Govt. of Germany to facilitate Indo-German R&D networking with emphasis on industry participation, applied research and technology development.
What is Pyrolysis?
- Pyrolysis is the thermal decomposition of materials at elevated temperatures in an inert atmosphere.
- It involves a change in chemical composition. The word is coined from the Greek-derived elements pyro “fire” and lysis “separating”.
- It is most commonly used in the treatment of organic materials. It is one of the processes involved in charring wood.
- It is considered as the first step in the processes of gasification or combustion.
- In general, pyrolysis of organic substances produces volatile products and leaves a solid residue enriched in carbon, char.
- Extreme pyrolysis, which leaves mostly carbon as the residue, is called carbonization.
- The process is used heavily in the chemical industry, for example, to produce ethylene, many forms of carbon, and other chemicals from petroleum, coal, and even wood, to produce coke from coal.
What is Biochar?
- Biochar is a high-carbon, fine-grained residue that is currently produced through modern pyrolysis processes (direct thermal decomposition of biomass in the absence of oxygen and preventing combustion).
- It produces a mixture of solids (the biochar proper), liquid (bio-oil), and gas (syngas) products.
- Biochar may increase soil fertility of acidic soils (low pH soils), increase agricultural productivity, and provide protection against some foliar and soil-borne diseases.
JAL JEEVAN MISSION
Focus: Government policies and Interventions
Why in news?
- Meghalaya presents Annual Action Plan under Jal Jeevan Mission
- State plans 100% saturation ‘Har Ghar Jal’ by December, 2022
About Jal Jeevan Mission:
Nodal: Ministry of Jal Shakti
- Jal Jeevan Mission, a central government initiative under the Ministry of Jal Shakti, aims to ensure access of piped water for every household in India.
- National Rural Drinking Water Programme (NRDWP) was restructured and subsumed into Jal Jeevan Mission (JJM) – to provide Functional Household Tap Water (FHTC) to every rural household with service level at the rate of 55 lpcd i.e., Har Ghar Nal Se Jal (HGNSJ) by 2024.
- Supply of water to all households is a basic necessity
- Reduction in water borne diseases which was due to due to consumption of substandard water
- Critical situation of Decrease in ground water table.
- Water demand and supply is a miss match
- Contamination of local ground level sources of water like, ponds lakes and wells.
- Sustaining the provision of water to all households is a challenge, not just starting it.