- PRADHAN MANTRI FASAL BIMA YAJANA (PMFBY)
- NATIONAL PHARMACEUTICALS PRICING AUTHORITY (NPPA)
PRADHAN MANTRI FASAL BIMA YAJANA (PMFBY)
Focus: GS II- Welfare Schemes
About Pradhan Mantri Fasal Bima Yojana (PMFBY)
- The Pradhan Mantri Fasal Bima Yojana (PMFBY) launched on 2016 by Prime Minister Narendra Modi is an insurance service for farmers for their yields.
- PMFBY is in line with One Nation – One Scheme theme.
- The PMFBY will replace the existing two schemes National Agricultural Insurance Scheme as well as the Modified NAIS.
- The Scheme shall be implemented through a multi-agency framework by selected insurance companies under the overall guidance & control of the Department of Agriculture, Cooperation & Farmers Welfare (DAC&FW), Ministry of Agriculture & Farmers Welfare (MoA&FW), Government of India (GOI) and the concerned State in co-ordination with various other agencies.
- Premium cost over and above the farmer share is equally subsidized by States and the Central Government of India. However, the Central Government shares 90% of the premium subsidy for North Eastern States to promote the uptake in the region.
- To provide insurance coverage and financial support to the farmers in the event of failure of any of the notified crop as a result of natural calamities, pests & diseases.
- To stabilise the income of farmers to ensure their continuance in farming.
- To encourage farmers to adopt innovative and modern agricultural practices.
- To ensure flow of credit to the agriculture sector.
Beneficiaries: All farmers growing notified crops in a notified area during the season who have insurable interest in the crop are eligible.
Coverage of Crops:
- Oil seeds
- Food crop
- Annual Commercial / Annual Horticultural crops.
- In addition, for perennial crops, pilots for coverage can be taken for those perennial horticultural crops for which standard methodology for yield estimation is available.
Risks covered under the scheme
- Prevented Sowing/Planting/Germination Risk: Insured area is prevented from sowing/planting/germination due to deficit rainfall or adverse seasonal/weather conditions.
- Standing Crop (Sowing to Harvesting): Comprehensive risk insurance is provided to cover yield losses due to non-preventable risks, viz. Drought, Dry spell, Flood, Inundation, widespread Pests and Disease attack, Landslides, Fire due to natural causes, Lightening, Storm, Hailstorm and Cyclone.
- Post-Harvest Losses: Coverage is available only up to a maximum period of two weeks from harvesting, for those crops which are required to be dried in cut and spread / small bundled condition in the field after harvesting against specific perils of Hailstorm, Cyclone, Cyclonic rains and Unseasonal rains
- Localized Calamities: Loss/damage to notified insured crops resulting from occurrence of identified localized risks of Hailstorm, Landslide, Inundation, Cloud burst and Natural fire due to lightening affecting isolated farms in the notified area.
- Add-on coverage for crop loss due to attack by wild animals: The States may consider providing add-on coverage for crop loss due to attack by wild animals wherever the risk is perceived to be substantial and is identifiable.
- General Exclusions: Losses arising out of war and nuclear risks, malicious damage and other preventable risks shall be excluded.
NATIONAL PHARMACEUTICALS PRICING AUTHORITY (NPPA)
Focus: GS-III Industry and Infrastructure
Why in news?
On the foundation day of National Pharmaceuticals Pricing Authority (NPPA) Union Minister of Chemicals and Fertilizers congratulated NPPA for working tirelessly to ensure availability of life-saving drugs at reasonable prices consistently.
National Pharmaceutical Pricing Authority (NPPA)
- The National Pharmaceutical Pricing Authority (NPPA) is a government regulatory agency that controls the prices of pharmaceutical drugs in India.
- National Pharmaceutical Pricing Authority (NPPA) was constituted by Government of India Resolution dated 29th August, 1997.
- NPPA is Neither a Statutory nor a Constitutional Body.
- NPPA acts as an attached office of the Department of Pharmaceuticals (DoP), Ministry of Chemicals & Fertilizers as an independent Regulator for pricing of drugs and to ensure availability and accessibility of medicines at affordable prices.
- The NPPA regularly publishes lists of medicines and their maximum ceiling prices (Drug Price Control Orders DPCO).
NPPA is propelling Digital India mission by:
- Pharma Sahi Daam– App to check prices of medicines
- Pharma Jan Samadhan– Public grievance system to help people resolve their problems.
- Pharma Data Bank– Online information collection from Pharma manufacturers.”
Functions of NPPA
- To implement and enforce the provisions of the Drugs (Prices Control) Order in accordance with the powers delegated to it.
- To deal with all legal matters arising out of the decisions of the Authority.
- To monitor the availability of drugs, identify shortages, if any, and to take remedial steps.
- To collect/ maintain data on production, exports and imports, market share of individual companies, profitability of companies etc, for bulk drugs and formulations.
- To undertake and/ or sponsor relevant studies in respect of pricing of drugs/ pharmaceuticals.
- To recruit/ appoint the officers and other staff members of the Authority, as per rules and procedures laid down by the Government.
- To render advice to the Central Government on changes/ revisions in the drug policy.
- To render assistance to the Central Government in the parliamentary matters relating to the drug pricing.