- UNIQUE DISABILITY IDENTIFICATION PORTAL
- BLACK CARBON
- SWACHH BHARAT MISSION
UNIQUE DISABILITY IDENTIFICATION PORTAL
Focus: GS II- Government Policies and Interventions
Why in news?
The Ministry of Social Justice & Empowerment has issued a notification making it mandatory for all States/UTs to grant certificate of disability through online mode only using UDID (Unique Disability ID) portal.
- Unique Disability Identification Card (UDID) now acceptable as a Photo ID for registration on Co-WIN 2.0
- The Central Government notified the Rights of Persons with Disabilities Rules, 2017 under RPwD Act, 2016
- Rule 18(5) mandates the Central Government to appoint a date making it mandatory for the State/UT authorities to issue certificate of disability through online mode.
- The UDID project has been under implementation since 2016.
- The States/UTs have been given adequate time to convert to online mode.
- It will ensure complete digitization of certification of disability besides providing a viable mechanism for cross-checking genuineness of the certificate
- Aims to achieve pan-India validity and simplifying the process for the benefit of Divyangjan.
Unique Disability Identification (UDID) Portal:
- The project is being implemented with a view of creating a National Database for persons with disabilities (PwDs), and to issue a Unique Disability Identity Card to each PwDs.
- The project will not only encourage transparency, efficiency and ease of delivering the government benefits to the person with disabilities, but also ensure uniformity.
- The project will also help in stream-lining the tracking of physical and financial progress of beneficiaries at all levels of hierarchy of implementation – from village level, block level, District level, State level and National level.
Right of Persons with Disabilities Act 2016:
- Right of Persons with Disabilities Act 2016 replaces the Persons with Disabilities (Equal Opportunities, Protection of Rights and Full Participation) Act, 1995.
- Disability has been defined based on an evolving and dynamic concept.
- It increases the quantum of reservation for people suffering from disabilities from 3% to 4% in government jobs and from 3% to 5% in higher education institutes.
- This Act brings our law in line with the United National Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities (UNCRPD), to which India is a signatory.
Central Advisory Board on Disability
- Department of Empowerment of Persons with Disabilities (Divyangjan) under Ministry of Social Justice & Empowerment was set up in May 2012
- It aims to facilitate empowerment and inclusion of the persons with disabilities.
- Acts as a nodal agency to look after all development agenda of Persons with Disabilities (Divyangjan).
Focus: GS III- Environment
Why in news?
A new study will help accurate estimation of black carbon over the Himalaya, a key contributor to global warming & improve weather & climate predictions.
What is Black Carbon?
- Black carbon is a potent climate-warming component of particulate matter formed by the incomplete combustion of fossil fuels, wood and other fuels.
- Complete combustion would turn all carbon in the fuel into carbon dioxide (CO2), but combustion is never complete and CO2, carbon monoxide, volatile organic compounds, and organic carbon and black carbon particles are all formed in the process.
- The complex mixture of particulate matter resulting from incomplete combustion is often referred to as soot.
- BC is a short-lived pollutant that is the second-largest contributor to warming the planet behind carbon dioxide (CO2). Unlike other greenhouse gas emissions, BC is quickly washed out and can be eliminated from the atmosphere if emissions stop.
- Deposits of BC act in two ways hastening the pace of glacier melt: by decreasing surface reflectance of sunlight and by raising air temperature.
Adverse Effects of Black Carbon
- Black carbon is a short-lived climate pollutant with a lifetime of only days to weeks after release in the atmosphere.
- During this short period of time, black carbon can have significant direct and indirect impacts on the climate, glacial regions, agriculture and human health.
- Several studies have demonstrated that measures to prevent black carbon emissions can reduce near-term warming of the climate, increase crop yields and prevent premature deaths.
- Black carbon absorbs solar energy and warms the atmosphere.
- When it falls to earth with precipitation, it darkens the surface of snow and ice, reducing their albedo (the reflecting power of a surface), warming the snow, and hastening melting.
SWACHH BHARAT MISSION
Focus: Government policies and Interventions
Why in news?
Swachh Bharat Mission Grameen – Phase 2, makes steady progress amidst COVID-19 Pandemic with 1249 villages declared ODF Plus.
Swachh Bharat Mission
- Swachh Bharat Mission (SBM) or Clean India Mission is a country-wide sanitation campaign launched on the day of Gandhi Jayanti, 2014.
- The phase -2 of SBM was announced by Prime Minister Shri Narendra Modi in February, 2020 i.e. just preceding the first COVID wave in India.
- The phase -1 concluded in October 2019 with grand declaration of the Nation as Open Defecation Free.
- The Phase -2 emphasizes upon the sustainability of achievements under phase -1 and to provide adequate facilities for Solid/Liquid & plastic waste management in rural India.
- Secretary, Department of Drinking Water and Sanitation (DDWS),
- Ministry of Jal shakti with two Sub-Missions – the Swachh Bharat Mission (Gramin) and the Swachh Bharat Mission (Urban).
The Main objectives of SBM are:
- Elimination of open defecation,
- Eradication of Manual Scavenging,
- Implementing Modern and scientific municipal solid waste management and
- Bringing behavioural change regarding healthy sanitation practices.
Swachh Bharat Mission for Urban Areas
- The program includes the elimination of open defecation, conversion of unsanitary toilets to pour flush toilets, eradication of manual scavenging, municipal solid waste management and bringing about a behavioral change in people regarding healthy sanitation practices.
- The mission aims to cover 1.04 crore households, provide 2.5 lakh community toilets, 2.6 lakh public toilets, and a solid waste management facility in each town.
- Under the program, community toilets will be built in residential areas where it is difficult to construct individual household toilets. Public toilets will also be constructed in designated locations such as tourist places, markets, bus stations, railway stations, etc.
Swachh Bharat Mission (Gramin)
- The Nirmal Bharat Abhiyan has been restructured into the Swachh Bharat Mission (Gramin).
- The mission aims to make India an open defecation free country.
- It seeks to improve the levels of cleanliness in rural areas through Solid and Liquid Waste Management activities and making Gram Panchayats Open Defecation Free (ODF), clean and sanitized.
- Incentive, as provided under the Mission for the construction of Individual Household Latrines (IHHL), shall be available for all Below Poverty Line (BPL) Households and Above Poverty Line (APL) households restricted to SCs/STs, small and marginal farmers, landless laborers with homestead, physically handicapped and women-headed households.
- Central Share (75%) from Swachh Bharat Mission (Gramin).
- The State share will be (25%).