- BrahMos supersonic cruise missile
- Swachh Bharat Mission – Urban 2.0 and AMRUT 2.0.
BrahMos Supersonic Cruise Missile
Focus: GS III- Science and Technology
Why in News?
The Indian Navy successfully demonstrated the accuracy of an extended-range land attack Brahmos supersonic cruise missile from the stealth destroyer INS Chennai.
About BrahMos supersonic cruise missile
- The BrahMos is a medium-range ramjet supersonic cruise missile that can be launched from submarine, ships, aircraft, or land.
- It is the fastest supersonic cruise missile in the world.
- BRAHMOS is a joint venture between the Defence Research and Development Organisation of India (DRDO) and the NPOM of Russia.
- Brahmos is named on the rivers Brahmaputra and Moskva.
- It is a two-stage (solid propellant engine in the first stage and liquid ramjet in second) air to surface missile with a flight range of around 300 km.
- However, India’s entry into the Missile Technology Control Regime (MTCR) has extended the range of the BRAHMOS missile to reach 450 km-600km, a shade above its current MTCR capped range of 300 km.
- Brahmos is a multiplatform i.e., it can be launched from land, air, and sea and multi capability missile with pinpoint accuracy that works in both day and night irrespective of the weather conditions.
- It operates on the “Fire and Forgets” principle i.e., it does not require further guidance after launch.
- Brahmos is one of the fastest cruise missiles currently operationally deployed with speed of Mach 2.8, which is 3 times more than the speed of sound.
About Defence Research and Development Organisation (DRDO)
- The Defence Research and Development Organisation (DRDO) is an agency of the Government of India, charged with the military’s research and development.
- It is headquartered in Delhi, India and has its 50+ labs all across the country.
- It was formed in 1958.
- It is under the administrative control of the Ministry of Defence, Government of India.
- With a network of 52 laboratories, which are engaged in developing defence technologies covering various fields, like aeronautics, armaments, electronics, land combat engineering, life sciences, materials, missiles, and naval systems, DRDO is India’s largest and most diverse research organisation.
Objectives of DRDO
- Design, develop and lead to production state-of-the-art sensors, weapon systems, platforms and allied equipment for our Defence Services.
- Provide technological solutions to the Services to optimise combat effectiveness and to promote well-being of the troops.
- Develop infrastructure and committed quality manpower and build strong indigenous technology base.
Swachh Bharat Mission – Urban 2.0 and AMRUT 2.0.
Focus: GS II- Welfare schemes
Why in News?
Swachh Bharat Mission-Urban 2.0 (SBM-U 2.0), under the aegis of the Ministry of Housing and Urban Affairs (MoHUA), organized the National conclave on ‘Social Enterprises for Garbage Free Cities: Encouraging Women Entrepreneurs in Waste management’ in Raipur.
About Swachh Bharat Mission-Urban 2.0
- SBM-U 2.0 envisions to make all cities ‘Garbage Free’
- To ensure grey and black water management in all cities other than those covered under AMRUT
- To make all urban local bodies as ODF+ and those with a population of less than 1 lakh as ODF++, thereby achieving the vision of safe sanitation in urban areas.
- The Mission will focus on source segregation of solid waste, utilizing the principles of 3Rs (reduce, reuse, recycle), scientific processing of all types of municipal solid waste and remediation of legacy dumpsites for effective solid waste management.
- The outlay of SBM-U 2.0 is around ₹1.41 lakh crore.
About AMRUT 2.0
- AMRUT 2.0 aims to provide 100% coverage of water supply to all households in around 4,700 urban local bodies by providing about 2.68 crore tap connections and 100% coverage of sewerage and septage in 500 AMRUT cities by providing around 2.64 crore sewer/ septage connections, which will benefit more than 10.5 crore people in urban areas.
- AMRUT 2.0 will adopt the principles of circular economy and promote conservation and rejuvenation of surface and groundwater bodies.
- The Mission will promote data led governance in water management and Technology Sub-Mission to leverage latest global technologies and skills.
- ‘Pey Jal Survekshan’ will be conducted to promote progressive competition among cities.
- The outlay of AMRUT 2.0 is around ₹2.87 lakh crore.
Impact of SBM-U and AMRUT
- SBM-U and AMRUT have contributed significantly to improve urban landscape during the last seven years.
- The two flagship Missions have augmented the capacity to deliver basic services of water supply and sanitation to the citizens.
- Swachhta has become a Jan Andolan today.
- All urban local bodies have been declared Open Defecation Free (ODF) and 70% solid waste is being scientifically processed now.
- AMRUT has been ensuring water security by adding 1.1 crore household water tap connections and 85 lakh sewer connections, thus benefiting more than 4 crore people.