- GREEN HYDROGEN
- SRI GURU GOBIND SINGH JI
- STARTUP INDIA INNOVATION WEEK
Focus: GS III- Environment
Why in News?
Union Minister for Chemicals and Fertilizers chaired a high level meeting to make Atmanirbhar Bharat in Urea and DAP Production by using ‘Green Hydrogen’.
About Green Hydrogen
- The technology for green hydrogen is based on the generation of hydrogen through electrolysis.
- It is a universal, light and highly reactive fuel.
- Under this method, electrical current is used to separate the hydrogen from the oxygen in the water.
- In case the electricity is produced through renewable sources of energy, the hydrogen would be green hydrogen.
- Hydrogen is the most abundant element on earth. Also, the global demand for hydrogen as a fuel has become thrice of what it was in 1975. It is also the only source of energy that only emits water vapour and leaves no residue in the air.
- Hydrogen has been used to fuel cars, airships and spaceships since the beginning of the 19th century.
Green Hydrogen Advantages
- Hydrogen is a 100 % sustainable source: Green hydrogen does not emit polluting gases in its combustion or production processes.
- Green Hydrogen is a gas and thus would be easily stored. It can be subsequently used for other purposes just following its production.
- It can be easily transformed into electricity or synthetic gas which can then be used for domestic, commercial, industrial purposes.
- Green hydrogen can be mixed with the natural gas, up to a maximum of 20 %. It can also be transported through the same pipes and in the same infrastructure.
Green Hydrogen Disadvantages
- Renewable sources, which would be used to generate green hydrogen through electrolysis, are extremely expensive currently taking the cost of the whole production to sky heights.
- The production of green hydrogen requires more energy than other fuels.
- Green hydrogen is an extremely volatile and flammable element. It needs extensive safety measures to prevent leakage and explosions.
Green Hydrogen Importance
- Hydrogen is being used across the United States, Russia, China, France and Germany. Countries like Japan desire to become a hydrogen economy in future.
- Green hydrogen can in future be used for
- Electricity and drinking water generation, energy storage, transportation etc.
- Green hydrogen can be used to provide water to the crew members in space stations.
- Energy storage- Compressed hydrogen tanks can store the energy longer and are easier to handle than lithium-ion batteries as they are lighter.
- Transport and mobility- Hydrogen can be used in heavy transport, aviation and maritime transport.
SRI GURU GOBIND SINGH JI
Focus: GS I- History
Why in News?
The Prime Minister has greeted the people on the occasion of Parkash Purab of Sri Guru Gobind Singh Ji.
About Sri Guru Gobind Singh Ji
- Guru Gobind Singh, born Gobind Rai, was the tenth Sikh Guru, a spiritual master, warrior, poet and philosopher.
- When his father, Guru Tegh Bahadur, was executed by Aurangzeb, Guru Gobind Singh was formally installed as the leader of the Sikhs at the age of nine, becoming the tenth and final human Sikh Guru.
- His notable contribution to Sikhism is the establishment of the Khalsa in 1699.
- The only son of Guru Tegh Bahadur, Guru Gobind Singh was born in Patna in December 1666.
- He was educated in reading, writing, and also martial arts, archery and horse riding.
- Not only was he a brave warrior, but he was also a great poet and philosopher.
- His literary contributions include the Jaap Sahib, Benti Chaupai, Amrit Savaiye, etc.
- He took part in many battles, particularly against the Mughal ruler Aurangzeb.
- Guru Gobind Singh also wrote the Zafarnama which was a letter to the Mughal Emperor Aurangzeb. Aurangzeb is believed to have agreed to a meeting with the Guru but died before that.
- The Guru along with his troops was stationed in the Deccan when two Afghan assassins commissioned by Wazir Khan gained access to the camp.
- One of the assassins stabbed the Guru at Nanded.
- The assassin was killed by the Guru while his accomplice was killed by Sikh guards.
- Guru Gobind Singh died of wounds a few days later on 7 October 1708 aged 42.
- After the Guru’s death, there ensued a long and bitter war between the Sikhs and the Mughals.
About Guru Gobind Singh Ji Contributions
- Guru Gobind Singh’s most significant contribution was the institutionalizing of the Khalsa, which was a warrior community. An initiation ceremony called Amrit Pehul was created and rules were formulated for the Khalsa.
- A male Khalsa was given the title ‘Singh’ and a female was given the title ‘Kaur’.
- This code solidified the martial spirit of the Sikh community.
- Guru Gobind Singh started the tradition of the Five K’s for the Khalsa.
- The Five K’s are kesh (uncut hair), kanga (wooden comb), kara (iron or steel bracelet), kirpan (dagger) and kacchera (short breeches).
- These were the five articles of faith that a Khalsa must always adorn.
- The Guru also laid down many other rules for the Khalsa warriors to follow like abstaining from tobacco, alcohol, halal meat, etc. The Khalsa warrior was also duty-bound to protect innocent people from persecution.
- Everyone was treated equally and caste was abolished.
- The Khalsa tradition was responsible for converting the Sikhs into a strong and disciplined fighting group.
- This also paved the way for the establishment of the Sikh Empire under Maharaja Ranjit Singh in 1799.
- Another significant contribution of Guru Gobind Singh was the enshrining the Sikh scripture Granth Sahib as the eternal Guru of Sikhism. Thus, after his death, there were no more Gurus in human form.
STARTUP INDIA INNOVATION WEEK
Focus: Government Policies and Interventions
Why in News?
The Department for Promotion of Industry and Internal Trade (DPIIT) is organizing the first-ever Startup India Innovation Week from 10th -16th of January 2022.
- To bring together country’s key startups, entrepreneurs, investors, incubators, funding entities, banks, policymakers etc under one platform to celebrate entrepreneurship and promote innovation
- This virtual week-long innovation celebration aims to commemorate the 75th year of India’s independence ‘Azadi Ka Amrit Mahotsav’ and is designed to showcase the spread and depth of entrepreneurship across India.
- Interestingly, in the startup world, 2021 has been recognised as the ‘year of unicorns,’ with 40+ unicorns added in the year.
- India is emerging as a global innovation hub, boasting the world’s third-largest startup ecosystem.
- DPIIT has recognised more than 61,000 startups as on date.
- Our startups represent 55 industries, spread across 633 districts with at least one startup from every State and UT of the country have created over 6 lakh jobs since 2016.
- 45% of the startups are from Tier-2 and Tier-3 cities and 45% of them are represented by women entrepreneurs. Startups have the potential to accelerate India’s integration into global value chains and create global impact.