- PM-DAKSH (Pradhan Mantri Dakshta Aur Kushalta Sampann Hitgrahi) Yojana
- Pradhan Mantri Bhartiya Janaushadhi Pariyojana
- Deep Ocean Mission
PM-DAKSH (Pradhan Mantri Dakshta Aur Kushalta Sampann Hitgrahi) Yojana
Focus: GS II- Government Policies and interventions
Why in News?
Recently, the Ministry of Social Justice & Empowerment has informed the Lok Sabha that the amount of funds earmarked under PM-DAKSH (Pradhan Mantri Dakshta Aur Kushalta Sampann Hitgrahi) Yojana during 2020-21 and 2021-22 are Rs.44.79 crores and Rs.79.48 crores respectively.
- PM-DAKSH (Pradhan Mantri Dakshta Aur Kushalta Sampann Hitgrahi) Yojana is a National Action Plan for skilling of marginalized persons covering SCs, OBCs, EBCs, DNTs, Sanitation workers including waste pickers.
- It is being implemented from the year 2020-21.
- It will provide skill development training programmes for qualified target groups in the areas of Short Term Training Programs, Up-Skilling/Reskilling, Entrepreneurship Development Programs, and Long Term Training Programs.
- Government training institutes, sector skill councils established by the Ministry of Skill Development and Entrepreneurship, and other competent organisations are implementing these training programmes.
It is implemented by the three Corporations under the Ministry:
- National Scheduled Castes Finance and Development Corporation (NSFDC),
- National Backward Classes Finance & Development Corporation (NBCFDC),
- National Safai Karamcharis Finance and Development Corporation (NSKFDC).
What is the Significance of the Scheme?
- Most members of the target groups have limited financial resources; consequently, providing training and improving their skills is critical for economic empowerment and upliftment of these marginalised groups.
- Many members of the target groups are rural craftsmen who have become marginalised as a result of the introduction of superior technologies to the market.
- Women cannot participate in wage employment because of their overall domestic responsibilities, which usually entails long working hours and perhaps relocation to other cities; therefore, there is a need to empower women among the target populations.
Pradhan Mantri Bhartiya Janaushadhi Pariyojana
Focus: GS II- Government Policies and Interventions
Why in News?
The Government has set a target to have about 10,500 PMBJKs by March 2025 across the country. The target for the year 2022-23 is to have about 9,300 PMBJKs across the country.
- There are about 8689 PMBJKs opened up in the country covering all districts of the country.
About Pradhan Mantri Bhartiya Janaushadhi Pariyojana
- Pradhan Mantri Bhartiya Janaushadhi Pariyojana (PMBJP) is a campaign launched by the Department of Pharmaceuticals in 2008 under the name Jan Aushadi Campaign.
- Bureau of Pharma PSUs of India (BPPI) is the implementation agency for PMBJP.
- The Bureau of Pharma PSUs of India works under the Ministry of Chemicals & Fertilizers.
- PMBJP stores have been set up to provide generic drugs, which are available at lesser prices but are equivalent in quality and efficacy as expensive branded drugs.
- It also intends to extend the coverage of quality generic medicines so as to reduce the out of pocket expenditure on medicines and thereby redefine the unit cost of treatment per person.
What is a generic medicine?
- There is no definition of generic or branded medicines under the Drugs & Cosmetics Act, 1940 and Rules, 1945 made thereunder. However, generic medicines are generally those which contain same amount of same active ingredient(s) in same dosage form and are intended to be administered by the same route of administration as that of branded medicine.
- The price of an unbranded generic version of a medicine is generally lower than the price of a corresponding branded medicine because in case of generic version, the pharmaceutical company does not have to spend money on promotion of its brand.
Mission of PMBJP
- Create awareness among public regarding generic medicines.
- Create demand for generic medicines through medical practitioners.
- Create awareness through education and awareness program that high price need not be synonymous with high quality.
- Provide all the commonly used generic medicines covering all the therapeutic groups.
- Provide all the related health care products too under the scheme.
Vision of PMBJP
- To bring down the healthcare budget of every citizen of India through providing Quality generic Medicines at Affordable Prices.
Salient Features of the Scheme as follows
- Ensure access to quality medicines.
- Extend coverage of quality generic medicines so as to reduce the out of pocket (OOP) expenditure on medicines and thereby redefine the unit cost of treatment per person.
- Create awareness about generic medicines through education and publicity so that quality is not synonymous with only high price.
- A public programme involving Government, PSUs, Private Sector, NGO, Societies, Co-operative Bodies and other Institutions.
- Create demand for generic medicines by improving access to better healthcare through low treatment cost and easy availability wherever needed in all therapeutic categories.
Benefits of Jan Aushadhi Campaign
- The Jan Aushadhi initiative will make available quality drugs at affordable prices through dedicated stores selling generic medicines which are available at lesser prices but are equivalent in quality and efficacy as expensive branded drugs.
- Promote greater awareness about cost effective drugs and their prescription.
- Make available unbranded quality generic medicines at affordable prices through public-private partnership.
- Encourage doctors, more specifically in government hospital to prescribe generic medicines.
- Enable substantial savings in health care more particularly in the case of poor patients and those suffering from chronic ailments requiring long periods of drug use.
Deep Ocean Mission
Focus: GS I- Physical Geography
Why in news?
The Ministry of Earth Sciences has launched the Deep Ocean Mission (DOM).
- Indian Space Research Organisation (ISRO) is one of the collaborators of the Ministry of Earth Sciences for implementation of Deep Ocean Mission.
About Deep Ocean Mission:
Nodal: Ministry of Earth Sciences
- Deep Ocean Mission is a mission mode project to support the Blue Economy Initiatives of the Government of India.
- Government of India has also launched a ‘Deep Ocean Mission’ for exploration of polymetallic nodules in Central Indian Ocean Basin.
- Polymetallic nodules contain multiple metals like copper, nickel, cobalt, manganese, iron, lead, zinc, aluminium, silver, gold, and platinum etc. in variable constitutions and are precipitate of hot fluids from upwelling hot magma from the deep interior of the oceanic crust.
- It is a Central Sector Scheme and no separate allocation for States is envisaged.
- It is proposed to collaborate with non-governmental organizations for research collaboration for various components of Deep Ocean Mission.
The major objectives proposed under Deep Ocean Mission are as follows:
- Development of technologies for deep sea mining, underwater vehicles and underwater robotics;
- Development of ocean climate change advisory services;
- Technological innovations for exploration and conservation of deep sea biodiversity;
- Deep ocean survey and exploration;
- Proof of concept studies on energy and freshwater from the ocean; and
- Establishing advanced marine station for ocean biology.