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Focus: GS-III Environment and Ecology

Why in news?

  • Prime Minister recently inaugurated the Rashtriya Swachhata Kendra – an interactive experience centre on the Swachh Bharat Mission.
  • The Prime Minister also launched ‘Gandagi Mukt Bharat’, a special week long campaign for swachhata in the run up to Independence Day, during which each day till 15th August will have special swachhata initiatives in urban and rural India to re-enforce the jan andolan for swachhata.

Rashtriya Swachhata Kendra (RSK)

A tribute to Mahatma Gandhi, the Rashtriya Swachhata Kendra (RSK) was first announced by the Prime Minister in 2017 on the occasion of the centenary celebrations of Gandhiji’s Champaran Satyagraha.


  • The RSK will introduce future generations to its successful journey as the world’s largest behaviour change campaign.
  • It will showcase the core elements of the mission and anecdotes on the journey of the country from Satyagraha to Swachchagrah.
  • It will impart information, awareness and education on Swachhata (sanitation) and related aspects.


  • RSK is an interactive experience centre on the Swachh Bharat Mission
  • The installations at RSK will include audio visual immersive shows, interactive LED panels, hologram boxes, interactive games etc.
  • The RSK has a balanced mix of digital and outdoor installations tracking India’s transformation from having over 50 crore people defecating in the open in 2014 to becoming open defecation free in 2019.

Swachh Bharat Mission

Swachh Bharat Mission (SBM) or Clean India Mission is a country-wide sanitation campaign launched on the day of Gandhi Jayanti, 2014.

The Main objectives of SBM are:

  1. Elimination of open defecation,
  2. Eradication of Manual Scavenging,
  3. Implementing Modern and scientific municipal solid waste management and
  4. Bringing behavioural change regarding healthy sanitation practices.

The 2 missions of SBM

  1. Swachh Bharat Mission (Urban): Implemented by the Ministry of Housing and Urban Affairs (M/o HUA) for urban areas. Swachh Bharat Mission-Urban (SBM-U) recently achieved its target of creating Urban India Open Defecation Free (ODF)
  2. Swachh Bharat Mission (Grameen): Implemented by the Ministry of Drinking Water and Sanitation (M/o DWS) for rural areas. Swachh Bharat Mission (G) Phase-I: The rural sanitation coverage in the country has increased from 38.7% to 100%. More than 10 crore individual toilets have been constructed since the launch of the mission. All rural areas in all the States have declared themselves ODF as on 2nd October, 2019.
November 2023