Regarding the Indus Valley Civilization, consider the following statements:
1. It was predominantly a secular civilization and the religious element, though present, did not dominate the scene
2. During this period, cotton was used for manufacturing textiles in India.
Which of the statements given above is/are correct?(2011)
a) 1 only
b) 2 only
c) Both 1 and 2
d) Neither 1 nor 2
Answer : C
Both statements are correct.
- The Harappan culture was distinguished by its system of town planning.
- Harappa and Mohenjodaro each had its own citadel or acropolis, which was possibly occupied by members of the ruling class.
- Below the citadel in each city lay a lower town containing brick houses, which were inhabited by the common people.
- The remarkable thing about the arrangement of the houses in the cities is that they followed the grid system.
- Granaries constituted an important part of the Harappan cities.
- The use of burnt bricks in the Harappan cities is remarkable, because in the contemporary buildings of Egypt mainly dried bricks were used.
- The drainage system of Mohenjodaro was very impressive.
- In almost all cities every big or small house had its own courtyard and bathroom.
- In Kalibangan many houses had their wells.
- At sites such as Dholavira and Lothal (Gujarat), the entire settlement was fortified, and sections within the town were also separated by walls.
- In Harappa numerous terracotta figurines of women have been found. In one figurine a plant is shown growing out of the embryo of a woman.
- The Harappans, therefore, looked upon the earth as a fertility goddess and worshipped her in the same manner as the Egyptians worshipped the Nile goddess Isis.
- The male deity is represented on a seal with three horned heads, represented in the sitting posture of a yogi.
- This god is surrounded by an elephant, a tiger, a rhinoceros, and has a buffalo below his throne. At his feet appear two deer.The depicted god is identified as Pushupati Mahadeva.
- Numerous symbols of the phallus and female sex organs made of stone have been found.
- The people of the Indus region also worshipped trees and Animals.
- The most important of them is the one horned unicorn which may be identified with the rhinoceros and the next important was the humped bull.
- Amulets have also been found in large numbers.