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Editorials/Opinions Analysis For UPSC 14 June 2023

Editorials/Opinions Analysis For UPSC 14 June 2023


  1. The Hiroshima AI Process (HAP)
  2. India-Nepal Relations: A Practical Approach

The Hiroshima AI Process (HAP)


  • The Hiroshima AI Process (HAP) was unveiled as a way to manage artificial intelligence (AI) at the annual Group of Seven (G-7) Summit, which will be held in Hiroshima, Japan, from May 19–21, 2023.
  • The HAP seeks to develop inclusive AI governance in accordance with ideals like liberty, democracy, and human rights while addressing the difficulties presented by generative AI.


GS Paper 3 : Science and Technology

Mains Question

Describe the Hiroshima AI Process (HAP)’s importance in governing artificial intelligence (AI) on a worldwide level. (150 Words)

Hiroshima AI Process: The Overview

  • The G-7 Leaders’ Communiqué emphasised the need for international debates on inclusive AI governance and interoperability, guided by shared democratic ideals. An overview of the Hiroshima AI Process is given below.
  • The HAP will hold conversations on many facets of generative AI in cooperation with international organisations including the OECD and GPAI, which are organised through a G-7 working group.Governance, the defence of intellectual property rights, the promotion of transparency, the prevention of foreign information manipulation, and the ethical application of AI technologies may all be topics of discussion. By December 2023, the HAP is anticipated to have finished its deliberations.

Alignment with principles and Norms:

  • The HAP understands how critical it is to make sure that AI development and application are in line with principles like liberty, democracy, and human rights.It places a strong emphasis on the values of equity, responsibility, openness, and security in AI regulation.
  • The phrase “procedures that advance transparency, openness, and fair processes” needs further clarification, but its emphasis on these principles suggests a shift away from a purely state-centric viewpoint.

Inclusivity and Multi-Stakeholder Involvement

  • The HAP recognises the importance of incorporating numerous stakeholders in AI regulation through “multi-stakeholder international organisations” and “multi-stakeholder processes.” Inclusivity and Multi-Stakeholder Involvement.
  • With this strategy, fairness, openness, and more representation are ensured in the development of AI governance. However, the G-7 countries’ differences in how they regulate AI threats make it difficult for the HAP to come to a consensus on important regulatory problems.

Potential Results and Impact

  • The HAP may result in varied rules based on G-7-wide standards, beliefs, and ideals. On some issues, there may be some convergence, but there may still be a lot of disagreement.
  • Clarifying the link between AI and intellectual property rights (IPR), and more specifically addressing the fair use of copyrighted items in AI training datasets, is one example of how the HAP might aid progress. The HAP can aid in forging a universal understanding on this subject by providing guiding norms and principles.

The Goal of a Reliable AI

  • The G-7 communiqué acknowledges that its members may have different ideas about what constitutes a trustworthy AI system. The HAP places a strong emphasis on cooperation with other nations, notably OECD members, and the creation of an interoperable AI governance framework, even though harmonising rules may not be the main goal.
  • This shows that the HAP must address the worries of other nation-groups and international organisations engaged in establishing technical standards for AI.


  • The creation of the Hiroshima AI Process demonstrates the importance of AI governance on a global scale. The HAP intends to regulate AI development and application in accordance with values like freedom, democracy, and human rights through open conversations and collaboration.
  • The G-7 countries still have difficulties in reaching agreement and avoiding total disagreement, but the HAP has the potential to influence future global AI regulation.

India-Nepal Relations: A Practical Approach


The recent trip to India by Prime Minister Pushpa Kamal Dahal Prachanda shows a dedication to tackling issues, looking into opportunities, and assessing many facets of bilateral cooperation.


GS Paper 2; Bilateral Relationship

Mains Question

Examine the contribution that economic integration has made to improving India and Nepal’s bilateral ties, paying particular attention to important fields like hydropower, infrastructure, and connectivity. (150 Words)

Realistic Irritant Handling

  • Political Courage of Prachanda: Despite difficulties at home, Prachanda showed political courage by pressing forward with a trip to India, demonstrating his dedication to establishing a brighter future for Nepal.
  • Concentrating on possibilities: Prachanda’s strategy entailed giving collaboration possibilities top priority rather than allowing political clamour to influence one’s decisions. With a realistic approach, issues like the 1950 Treaty, border disputes, and the Eminent Persons Group (EPG) report are meant to be settled.

The 1950 Treaty of Friendship and Peace

  • It establishes national treatment for both Indian and Nepalese businesses (i.e., once imported, foreign goods would be treated no differently than domestic goods), and it talks about the reciprocal treatment of Indian and Nepali citizens in the two countries with regard to residence, property, business, and movement.
  • Additionally, Nepal now has access to Indian-made weapons.

Nepal’s importance to India

  • Buffer state: Nepal protects other nations from potential Chinese assault.
  • Internal Security: With Nepal’s assistance, reducing drug trafficking and cross-border incursions.
  • Diaspora: Indian workers in Nepal and the Nepali diaspora in India.
  • Energy security: There are numerous transboundary Himalayan rivers with enormous hydroelectric potential that India and Nepal share.

Aiming for Economic Integration

  • Identifying Game Changers: The visit focused on critical areas for reshaping the economic environment, including hydropower projects, infrastructure expansion, access to river transportation, creative tourism circuits, and increased connectivity. When the Pancheshwar Multipurpose Project (PMP) was negotiated, signed, and ratified by parliament a few years ago, despite political upheavals in both nations, there was an extraordinary level of cross-party unanimity.
  • Renewing Your Commitment Following COVID-19, both nations reaffirmed their dedication to bilateral cooperation with the goal of enhancing deliveries and collaborating across many industries.
  • Cooperation in the power sector: The sub-region’s energy security and prosperity are set to be improved by cooperation in the power sector, especially the trilateral power transaction from Nepal to Bangladesh through India.

Technology and Payments Collaboration

  • Digital Financial Connectivity: The MoU between the Nepal Clearing House Ltd. and the National Payments Corporation of India promotes cross-border digital payments, promoting economic integration and regional collaboration.
  • Space Technology Cooperation: India’s pledge to help Nepal with technology, satellite services, ground stations, and disaster response opens up possibilities for collaboration in these areas.

Taking On Challenges

  • The challenge for Nepal is to depoliticize collaboration with India, notably in the management of water resources, while concentrating on enhancing governance and battling corruption.
  • Perception and Ownership: To ensure a sense of ownership, equity, and credit for significant joint endeavours across the political spectrum, India needs to overcome the perception in Nepal that it is no longer a foreign policy priority.


  • Despite opposition criticism, Nepal can obtain India’s assistance in fulfilling its requirements and expectations if it maintains a steady focus on development.
  • India and Nepal can establish closer ties for the mutual benefit of both countries by taking a practical approach, dealing with irritants, and encouraging cooperation in many sectors.

December 2023