Focus: GS-III Science and Technology
Why in news?
India would launch its latest earth observation satellite EOS-01 and nine international customer spacecraft onboard its PSLV-C49 rocket from spaceport of Sriharikota in Andhra Pradesh on November of 2020.
- This is the first launch by India Space Research Organization since the COVID 19 induced lockdown.
- ISRO said that 10 space missions that were being prepared for launch in 2020 have been disturbed due to the lockdown.
- EOS-01 is intended for applications in agriculture forestry and disaster management support.
- The customer satellites are being launched under commercial agreement with NewSpace India Limited (NSIL), Department of Space.
Earth Observation Satellites
- An Earth Observation Satellite or Earth Remote Sensing Satellite is a satellite used or designed for Earth Observance (EO) from orbit, including spy satellites and similar ones intended for non-military uses such as environmental monitoring, meteorology, cartography and others.
- The most common type are Earth imaging satellites, that take satellite images, analogous to aerial photographs; some EOS satellites may perform remote sensing without forming pictures, such as in GNSS radio occultation.
- The first occurrence of satellite remote sensing can be dated to the launch of the first artificial satellite, Sputnik 1, by the Soviet Union in 1957.
ISRO and EOS
- Starting with IRS-1A in 1988, ISRO has launched many operational remote sensing satellites.
- Currently 13 operational satellites are in Sun-synchronous orbit – RESOURCESAT-1, 2, 2A CARTOSAT-1, 2, 2A, 2B, RISAT-1 and 2, OCEANSAT-2, Megha-Tropiques, SARAL and SCATSAT-1, and *four* in Geostationary orbit- INSAT-3D, Kalpana & INSAT 3A, INSAT -3DR.
- The data from these satellites are used for several applications covering agriculture, water resources, urban planning, rural development, mineral prospecting, environment, forestry, ocean resources and disaster management.
New Space India Limited
- The establishment of NSIL was announced in Budget 2019.
- One of the mandates of NSIL is to mass-produce and manufacture the SSLV and the more powerful PSLV in partnership with the private sector in India through technology transfers.
- Its aim is to use research and development carried out by ISRO over the years for commercial purposes through Indian industry partners.
- It differs from ISRO’s existing commercial arm Antrix Corporation:
- Antrix will handle ISRO’s commercial deals for satellites and launch vehicles with foreign customers.
- NSIL will deal with capacity building of local industry for space manufacturing.
-Source: The Hindu