- Jute Materials.
- Dam Rehabilitation and Improvement Project (DRIP).
- Ethanol Blended Petrol Programme (EBPP).
- Production Linked Incentive (PLI) Schemes.
- Index of Eight Core Industries.
- Jal Jeevan Mission(JJM).
- Operation Meri Saheli.
- SERB-POWER (Promoting Opportunities for Women in Exploratory Research).
- World’s first scientoon book “Bye Bye Corona”on Coronavirus.
Focus: GS 3 ; Major crops-cropping patterns in various parts of the country, – different types of irrigation and irrigation systems storage, transport and marketing of agricultural produce and issues and related constraints; e-technology in the aid of farmers.
Why in News?
The Cabinet Committee on Economic Affairs chaired by the Prime Minister Shri Narendra Modi has approved that 100% of the food grains and 20% of the sugar shall be mandatorily packed in diversified jute bags.
About Jute “The Golden Fiber” ;-
- Jute is a natural fiber with a golden, soft, long, and silky shine. It is the cheapest fiber procured from the skin of the plant’s stem. Because of its colors and high cash value, Jute is known as a golden fiber. Hence, the Golden Fibre Revolution in India is related to jute production.
- Natural fibers are the hair like raw materials directly obtained from vegetable, animal or mineral source.
- Jute is the second in the worlds production of textile fibers after Cotton.
- After cotton, jute is the most important vegetable fiber in consumption, production, usage, and availability. During the industrial revolution, jute started being used as a raw material in the fabric industry and until today, the processed jute is used for making strong threads and jute products.
- Jute is a natural vegetable fiber under the category of bast fibers like flax, hemp, kenaf and ramie.
- Since ancient times, it has been traditionally grown in the eastern part of the Indian subcontinent, which make up of the present day West Bengal of India and plains of Bangladesh.
- India, China and Bangladesh are the leading producers of Jute.
- Jute is an annually renewable plant belonging to the genus Corchorus of the order Tiliacea.
- The first jute mill in India was set up in the year 1855 at Rishra, near Kolkata.
- To promote and popularize jute diversification work, National Jute Board, Ministry of Textiles, acts as the apex body for promotion of the products in India and abroad.
- India is the world’s largest producer of raw jute and jute goods , contributing to over 50 percent and 40 percent respectively of global production.
- The Revolution associated with Jute is Golden Fiber Revolution.
Above image about Plant Fibers.
About Jute Cultivation Overview;-
- Land = Jute can grow in wide range of soil but fertile loamy alluvial soil is better suitable.
- Soil pH = 6 -7.5 is ideal soil pH where jute is cultivated.
- Climate = Relative humidity between 40-90% and temperature between 17° C and 41°C, along with well distributed rainfall over 1200 mm is ideal for cultivation and growth of jute.
- Harvesting & Retting = Jute crop can be harvested between 100 – 120 days. After harvesting the jute bundles are kept in the field for 2 -3 days to allow leaf shedding. The bundles of jute stems after defoliation are placed in retting tank in ‘Jak’ and weighed down under water and places at a depth of 10 cm.
- Retting is a microbial process by which the fibre from the woody core (stick) is loosened. Bacteria and fungi act upon the soft tissues of the stem, which on dissolution makes it easy to separate the fibre from the core (stick). At normal temperature of 34° C, it taken generally 8-10 days for complete retting.
- Jute Grading = Jute cultivation is confined to West Bengal, Eastern Bihar, Assam, Orissa, Tripura and Andhra Pradesh where mostly Mesta (In trade and industry both the Jute and Mesta fibre together is known as Raw jute) is grown. Out of these states, West Bengal, Bihar and Assam contribute about 80% of the total production.
Above image is of Top Jute Producing States is Highlighted.
Stages of Production and processing in Jute Cultivation (attached in below image);-
Advantages of Jute;-
- Great Anti-Static Property.
- Low Thermal Conductivity.
- 100% Biodegradable, so it is environmental friendly fiber like cotton.
- Cheap in market.
- Jute can be widely used in Agriculture sector , Textile Sector, Woven sector, Non-woven sector.
- Jute fiber can be easily blended in Natural and synthetic fiber.
Disadvantages of Jute;-
- If Jute is wetted it losses its strength.
- Create shade effect and becomes yellowish if sunlight is used.
- The crease resistance (resistant to normal wrinkling) of Jute is low.
Importance of Jute Industry;-
- Jute Geotextile is (a variety of jute available in woven and non-woven fabrics) used in erosion control, separation, filtration and drainage in civil engineering work, and agricultural uses.
- Jute Geotextile also has application in rural road pavement construction and agro plant mulching.
- Diversification of jute products has opened up large opportunity for employment generation.
Ex of diversified jute products include fancy jute bags, Jute soft luggage, Jute footwear, Jute door panels, Jute check sarees, Jute wide range of furnishing, Jute gift items, Jute table lamps, Jute floor decor, Jute wall decor etc.,
- Jute bags have porosity, easily it can withstand the high temperature and are much stronger than the poly sacks.
- Jute bags can be recycled and reused and can be easily repaired compared to others.
Government Steps for Promoting Jute Industry;-
- Jute Corporation of India (JCI) procures raw jute at Minimum Support Price (MSP), fixed on the basis of recommendation of the commission for Agricultural Cost and Prices (CACP), from jute growers to safeguard their interest.
- Incentive Scheme for Acquisition of Plants and Machinery (ISAPM):- Launched in 2013, it aims to facilitate modernization in existing and new jute mills and up gradation of technology in existing jute mills .
- Jute-ICARE (Jute Improved Cultivation and Advanced Retting Exercise):- This pilot project launched in 2015 is aimed at addressing the difficulties faced by the jute cultivators by providing them certified seeds at subsidized rates, and by popularizing several newly developed retting technologies under water limiting conditions.
- The National Jute Board (NJB) implements various schemes for market development, worker’s welfare and promotion of diversification and exports.
- In order to boost demand in the Jute sector, the Government has also imposed Anti-Dumping duty on import of jute goods from Bangladesh and Nepal.
Below attached image about different Revolution’s and Respective names based on the Products;-
Focus: GS 3; Disaster and disaster management.
Why in News?
The Cabinet Committee on Economic Affairs chaired by the Prime Minister Shri Narendra Modi has approved the Dam Rehabilitation and Improvement Project (DRIP) Phase II & Phase III with the financial assistance of the World Bank (WB), and Asian Infrastructure Investment Bank (AIIB) to improve the safety and operational performance of selected dams across the whole country, along with institutional strengthening with system wide management approach.
- As told by Late First PM of India Jawaharlal Nehru about Dams i.e. “Dams are the temples of modern India , where I worship”, shows the present day significance about Dams.
- India stands 3rd in the world in terms of no. of large dams which stands at around 5600.
- Dams are massive barriers built across rivers and streams to confine the flow of water for human purpose.
- Dams used for the usage of irrigation, Hydropower, Water supply, Flood control, Navigation, Fishing and Recreations etc.,
Types of Dams (attached in below image);-
Advantages of Dams ;-
- Dams are clean, efficient and reliable form of energy.
- Dams does not emit any direct pollutants or greenhouse gases.
- Dams while initial cost is high but are very inexpensive to operate.
- Electricity generated by hydro-electric power plants is the cheapest electricity generated from dams.
- Dams helpful in prevent of floods.
- Many desert areas can now farm because of dams and canals that supply water.
- Dams supply water for local drinking needs.
- Dams allow for fish farming.
Disadvantages of Dams;-
- Dams cause flooding of large tracts of land, destroying local animals and habitat.
- Dams cause people displacement causing their life style and customs change, even causing emotional scarring.
- Dams change the migratory pattern of animals.
- Dams restricts sediments that are responsible for the fertile of soil due to this farmers land in downstream causes land infertile and they use chemicals fertilizers to compensate this.
- Large Dams are breeding ground for mosquitoes and causes the spread of diseases.
- Dams are heat sink and water is more hotter than normal one and when released in downstream it causes effect on animals life.
Problems of Dams Safety in India;-
- In India more than 75% of dams are 25 yrs old and some 160 dams are 100 yrs old, hence their proper maintenance and regulation requires more important.
- In the absence of Proper regulatory framework they pose danger to human and animal life , property etc and the benefits derived from them.
- There has been lack of funds for repair and maintenance of dams in India.
- The existing National committee on dam safety have no statutory recognition but only a recommendatory body and hence not suitably empowered for dam safety regulation.
About Dam Rehabilitation and Improvement project (DRIP);-
- The Dam Rehabilitation and Improvement Project (DRIP) has been taken up with loan assistance of the World Bank for rehabilitation and improvement of about 223 dam Projects initially in seven States (namely Jharkhand, Karnataka, Kerala, Madhya Pradesh, Odisha, Tamil Nadu, and Uttarakhand) and institutional strengthening and project management in Central Water Commission (CWC) and other Implementing Agencies the actual number of dams under DRIP may vary owing to the addition or deletion of dams during implementation.
- DRIP will be implemented over a period of six-years starting from 18th April, 2012.
- The objectives of DRIP are to be achieved through investments for physical and technological dam improvements, managerial upgrading of dam operations, management and maintenance, with accompanying institutional reforms.
- Further, it is expected that the institutional development activities will lead to an improvement in the system‐wide management approach to all dams in the participating states, over and above the focus on the selected dams covered by the project. The project will thus address dam system management in a holistic manner.
- The funding pattern for the scheme will be 80% from World Bank loan (50% IDA credit and 50% IBRD loan) and 20% from State/Central Government budgetary support.
- Apart from structural and non‐structural measures for rehabilitation and improvement of identified dams, the scope of project includes the development of appropriate institutional mechanisms for safe operation and maintenance of all large dams in participating states.
- The over progress of DRIP is being monitored by National Level Steering Committee (NLSC).
Dam Safety Bill 2018 (attached image in below regarding features of bill);-
About Dam Saftey Future in India ;-
- The Latest technologies should be adopted not only at the time of constructing the dam, but also during periodic review of the Dams.
- A standing committee Report has recommended that a penal provision for dam failures should be incorporated in the law and compensation should be provided to the affected families.
- The Institutional capacity building is needed in designing flood estimation routing for most of the sates.
- The Rehabilitation of old dams using the latest materials and technologies can enhance the life of a dam for many more decades.
- A well Planned monitoring system based on data collection and evaluation using modern instrumentation is the key to early detection of defects and ageing scenarios.
Focus: GS 3; Infrastructure: Energy, Ports, Roads, Airports, Railways etc.
Why in News?
The Cabinet Committee on Economic Affairs chaired by the Prime Minister Shri Narendra Modi has approved the following, including fixing higher ethanol price derived from different sugarcane based raw materials under the Ethanol Blended Petrol (EBP) Programme for the forthcoming sugar season 2020-21.
About Ethanol Blended Petrol Programme (EBPP);-
- Ethanol is an agro-based product, mainly produced from a by-product of the sugar industry, namely molasses.
- Ethanol is a renewable fuel made from various plant materials collectively known as “biomass.”
Above image attached indicates steps involved ethanol formation and till it goes into the engine for Transportation.
- Ethanol Blended Petrol (EBP) programme was launched in January, 2003.
- Ethanol Blended Petrol Program is another policy initiative pursued aggressively in the last 4 to 5 years to reduce import dependence of crude oil as well as mitigate environmental pollution.
- The Ethanol Blending Programme (EBP) seeks to achieve blending of Ethanol with motor sprit with a view to reducing pollution, conserve foreign exchange and increase value addition in the sugar industry enabling them to clear cane price arrears of farmers.
- The Government of India decided to launch EBP programme in 2003 for supply of 5% ethanol blended Petrol.
- The Central Government has scaled up blending targets from 5% to 10% under the Ethanol Blending Programme (EBP).
Above image attached helps in understanding science behind ethanol blending i.e. Save foreign currency, reduce crude oil import, boost farmers income i.e. doubling by 2022 etc.,
Additional Policies started to support Ethanol Production are National Biofuel Policy 2018, below attached image explained detailed about Biofuel policy 2018.;-
- The National Bio Fuel Policy aims at achieving 20% ethanol blending in petrol by 2030.
Focus: GS 2; Issues relating to development and management of Social Sector/Services relating to Health, Education, Human Resources.
Why in News?
Union Department of Pharmaceuticals, Ministry of Chemicals and fertilizers has revised the Production Linked Incentive (PLI) Schemes for promoting domestic manufacturing of bulk drugs and medical devices keeping in view the suggestions and comments received from the industry.
About Production Linked Incentive (PLI) Scheme;-
- A Production Linked Incentive (PLI) scheme for Domestic manufacturing of Medical Devices has been approved by the Cabinet for targeted sectors like Radiotherapy, Radiology, Anaesthetics, Implants etc.,
- The Department of Pharmaceuticals earlier come out with the following two Production Linked Incentive schemes-
- Production Linked Incentive scheme for promotion of domestic manufacturing of critical Key Starting Materials (KSM), Drug Intermediates and Active Pharmaceutical Ingredients in India.
- Production Linked Incentive Scheme for Promoting Domestic Manufacturing of Medical Devices.
- The PLI Scheme will be a Big boost for manufacturing in India and promote Make in India, “Drug Security of Nation”.
Below Attached images related to Production Linked Incentive (PLI) Scheme for Bulk Drug , Bulk Drug Park Scheme and its Benefits.
Focus: GS 3; Indian Economy and issues relating to planning, mobilization, of resources, growth, development and employment.
Why in News?
The Office of Economic Adviser, Department for Promotion of Industry and Internal Trade is releasing Index of Eight Core Industries.
About Index of Eight Core Industries;-
- The Eight Core Industries comprise 40.27% of the weight of items included in the Index of Industrial Production (IIP).
Index of Industrial Production (IIP);-
- The Index of Industrial Production (IIP) is an index that shows the growth rates in different industry groups of the economy in a fixed period of time.
- It is compiled and published monthly by the Central Statistical Organization (CSO), Ministry of Statistics and Programme Implementation (MOSPI).
- The Central Statistics Office (CSO) revised the base year of the all-India Index of Industrial Production (IIP) from 2004-05 to 2011-12 on 12 May 2017.
- IIP is a composite indicator that measures the growth rate of industry groups classified under broad sectors, namely, Mining, Manufacturing, and Electricity.
- Use-based sectors, namely Basic Goods, Capital Goods, and Intermediate Goods.
The Eight Core industries of IIP are as follows:-
- Crude Oil
- Natural Gas
- Refinery Products
Below image attached Eight Core Industries based on their weightage.
Significance of IIP :-
- IIP is the only measure on the physical volume of production.
- It is used by government agencies including the Ministry of Finance, the Reserve Bank of India, etc., for policy-making purposes.
- IIP remains extremely relevant for the calculation of the quarterly and advance GDP estimates.
The Sectoral composition of the IIP is as follows in below attached image;-
- As a sectoral wise in IIP Manufacturing constitutes highest ,followed by Mining and last Electricity.
Focus: GS 2 ; Government policies and interventions for development in various sectors and issues arising out of their design and implementation.
Why in News?
Jal Shakti Ministry reviews implementation of Jal Jeevan Mission in Kerala.
Focus: GS 1 ; Role of women and women’s organization, population and associated issues, poverty and developmental issues, urbanization, their problems and their remedies.
Why in News?
Indian Railways has launched “Meri Saheli” initiative for focused action on security of women across all zones with an objective to provide safety and security to lady passengers travelling by trains for their entire journey from starting station to destination station.
About Operation Meri Saheli;-
- An initiative of Railway Protection Force (RPF), the Strategy of the entails interaction with lady passengers especially those travelling alone by a team of young lady RPF personnel at the originating station.
- These lady passengers are briefed about all precautions to be taken during the journey and told to dial 182 in case they face or see any problem in the coach. The RPF team collects only the seat numbers of the ladies and conveys them to stoppages en-route.
- The platform duty RPF personnel at the stopping stations en-route keep unobtrusive watch over the concerned coaches and berths and if need arises, interact with the lady passengers. RPF/RPSF escort onboard also covers all the coaches/identified berths during its duty period.
- The “Meri Saheli” initiative was started as a pilot project in South Eastern Railway in September 2020 and after getting encouraging response from lady passengers, it was extended to all zones.
Focus: GS 3 ; Science and Technology- developments and their applications and effects in everyday life.
Why in News?
Dr. Harsh Vardhan, Union Minister for Science & Technology, Earth Sciences and Health & Family Welfare today launched a Scheme titled “SERB-POWER (Promoting Opportunities for Women in Exploratory Research)”, designed exclusively for women scientists, in a function on an e-platform.
About SERB-POWER (Promoting Opportunities for Women in Exploratory Research)Scheme ;-
- It is a scheme to mitigate gender disparity in science and engineering research funding in various S&T programs in Indian academic institutions and R&D laboratories.
- Integration of the gender dimension in research design has gained considerable attention in the global scenario. Enhancement of participation and promotion of women in the research workforce is one of the prime priorities of Government.
- SERB – POWER Scheme will have two components namely;-
(i) SERB-POWER Fellowship.
(ii) SERB- POWER Research Grants.
Above attached image related to women in Science Field.
About Science and Engineering Research Board (SERB);-
- The Science and Engineering Research Board (SERB), a Statutory body of the Department of Science and Technology (DST), Government of India, has been contemplating to institute a scheme to mitigate gender disparity in science and engineering research in various S&T programs in Indian academic institutions and R&D laboratories.
- It is a statutory body under the Department of science and Technology, Ministry of Science and Technology established by an Act of the Parliament of India in 2009.
- It is chaired by the Secretary to the Government of India in the Department of Science and Technology and has other senior government officials and eminent scientists as members.
- It was set up for promoting basic research in science and engineering and to provide financial assistance to scientists, academic institutions, Research and Development laboratories, industrial concerns and other agencies for such research.
Focus: GS 3 ; Science and Technology- developments and their applications and effects in everyday life.
Why in News?
World’s first scientoon book entitled “Bye Bye Corona”, written by ‘scientoonist’ Dr Pradeep Srivastava, former Senior Principal Scientist at CSIR-Central Drug Research Institute (CDRI), Lucknow, was released.
- Cartoons are most effective at communicating with human beings. They not only tickle us but are also capable of delivering tough messages in a simple, subtle and riveting manner.
- Human mind is hard wired to take their messages on board ahead of other forms of communication.
- A ‘scientoon’ is a cartoon communication based on science. Scientoons are meant to inform and sensitize people to science and scientific concepts in an intelligible and interesting way.
- The scientoon book ‘Bye Bye Corona’ is expected to help create wider awareness about COVID-19 cutting across age, language, and national boundaries.
Above image attached as a Ex., of Scientoon from the book “Bye Bye Corona”.