- Mining Deep
- A Continent on Fire
- CDS and the path to Jointmanship
- State of Open Source in India
Why in news?
- Center has liberated norms and reduced taxes for the coal sector in the country.
- Mineral Laws (Amendment) Ordinance 2020 cleared by the Cabinet on Wednesday will free the sector from restrictions that were inhibiting its development This will open up the coal mining sector completely, enabling anyone with finances and expertise to bid for blocks and sell the coal freely to any buyer of their choice
- This will open up the coal mining sector completely, enabling anyone with finances and expertise to bid for blocks and sell the coal freely to any buyer of their choice
- The opening up of coal mining effectively ends Coal India’s (CIL) monopoly status.
- This move is expected to bring in huge investments and create numerous jobs.
Why was it done now?
- The country spent a huge ₹1,71,000 crore in coal imports last year to buy 235 million tonnes; of that, 100 million tonnes was not substitutable, as the grade was not available in India, but the balance 135 million tonnes could have been substituted by domestic production had it been available.
About Coal India
- CIL is a Maharatna PSU and tremendous public resources have been invested in the company over the years. It is the government’s responsibility to ensure that CIL is not compromised the way BSNL has been by the opening up to private players. The company employs about three lakh people, is listed and is a national asset.
Why in news?
- Bush fires in Australia that started in 2018 august has caused large scale destruction.
What caused bush fires?
- Warnings have been sounded by scientists that even with a global average temperature rise of 1°C, the raging fires have engulfed an area the size of Switzerland
Concern for the future
- Raising the alarm over the lowest ever rainfall recorded in parts of NSW and Queensland, and high peak temperatures, producing a tinderbox effect across the large Murray Darling Basin. The situation is bound to worsen without policy change, as temperatures are predicted to soar to 50°C
Why in News?
Union Cabinet has approved the creation of the post of CDS with an aim to strengthen India’s collective defence capabilities. Cabinet committee on security (CCS) has approved the recommendations of several expert panels, including the Kargil Review Committee.
Need of such post
- To usher in reforms in the higher defence management Centre
- For a more streamlined system of reporting and decision making
Who is CDS?
- CDS will be a four-star general and will act as principal military adviser to defence minister on all tri services matters.
- He will also head the department of military affairs
- CDS was recommended by Kargil review committee after Kargil war.
- In 2017, intelligence and security officials had said that the absence of a CDS was hampering India’s combat capabilities
Functions of CDS
- Procurement for defence services other than capital acquisitions.
- Charter says that, in 3 years, jointness in operation, logistics, maintenance, communication, repairs should be effective.
- CDS heads the department of military Affairs, and will also be the permanent chairman of the Chiefs of Staff Committee.
- CDS will not exercise any military command including over three service chiefs.
- Rationalization of man power in military and ensuring adequate capital investment to all the 3 forces without discrimination and bias towards his own army
What is Open Source?
- Open-source software is a type of computer software in which source code is released under a license in which the copyright holder grants users the rights to study, change, and distribute the software to anyone and for any purpose.
- Open-source software may be developed in a collaborative public manner.
- It is a prominent example of open collaboration.
- It can bring in diverse perspectives beyond those of a single company.
- It can democratise code creation and train coders to use basic tools to make commercial products.
State of Open Software movement in India
- There are political, cultural and economic reasons to believe Open Source(OS) was important when the campaign for more OS started in the 2000s.
- Twin objectives: Software localised to Indian languages would show our independence in technological standpoint. We would be independent of multinational companies for core technology like operating systems from an economic standpoint.
- Today, some of the largest e-governance projects and start-ups in India are running on Open Source.