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A New Global Biodiversity Framework


The Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD), the United Nations agreement to conserve and sustainably use earth’s biodiversity, got a boost at a conference held in Montreal recently, when 188 of 196 member governments agreed on a new framework to halt the sharp and steady loss of biological species.


GS III: Environment and Ecology

Dimensions of the Article:

  1. Detail
  2. Why is biodiversity important?
  3. Kunming-Montreal pact
  4. What is the roadmap to 2030 and 2050?
  5. What funding arrangements are planned?
  6. Challenges to protecting biodiversity


These governments, supported by the U.S. and the Vatican, who are not party to the Convention, adopted the Kunming-Montreal Global Biodiversity Framework (GBF) that sets out four goals for 2050, and 23 targets for 2030, to save existing biodiversity and ensure that 30% of degraded terrestrial, inland water, coastal and marine ecosystems come under effective restoration.

Why is biodiversity important?

  • Biodiversity signifies the variety of species on earth, which are all connected and sustain the balance of ecosystems, enabling humans to coexist.
  • They interact with the environment to perform a host of functions.
  • The CBD states that only about 1.75 million species have so far been identified, including numerous insects, while there may be some 13 million species.
    • Some familiar ecosystem services rendered by diverse living forms, of which plants and animals are the most visible, include providing humans with food, fuel, fibre, shelter, building materials, air and water purification, stabilisation of climate, pollination of plants including those used in agriculture, and moderating the effects of flood, drought, extreme temperatures and wind.
  • A disruption of these produces severe impacts such as failed agriculture, aberrant climate patterns and cascading losses of species that accelerate the degradation of earth.

Kunming-Montreal pact

Protection for degraded areas:
  • It sets out targets for 2030 on protection for degraded areas,
  • Resource mobilisation for conservation, compensation for countries that preserve biodiversity, halting human activity linked to species extinction
  • Reducing by half the spread of invasive alien species (introduced plants and animals that affect endemic biodiversity)
  • Cutting pollution to non-harmful levels and minimising climate change impact and ocean acidification, among others.
Sustainable use of biodiversity:
  • The GBF goals and targets do not prohibit the use of biodiversity, but call for sustainable use, and a sharing of benefits from genetic resources.
  • Target five specifically states that the use, harvesting and trade in wild species should be “sustainable, safe and legal, preventing overexploitation, minimising impacts on non-target species and ecosystems and reducing the risk of pathogen spillover.”
Respect for the rights of indigenous communities:
  • The GBF emphasises respect for the rights of indigenous communities that traditionally protect forests and biodiversity, and their involvement in conservation efforts.
  • It advocates similar roles for women and local communities.
Agroecology and sustainable intensification:
  • Agricultural practices also find a strong focus. Besides emphasising sustainable practices in agriculture, aquaculture, fisheries and forestry, the agreement calls upon members to adopt biodiversity-supporting methods such as agroecology and sustainable intensification.
  • This acquires significance, since growing Genetically Modified (GM) crops is not favoured by agroecologists as they could contaminate nearby wild species of the same plants.
Urban planning:
  • One target also looks at turning cities into hosts of biodiversity, by expanding the area of and improving the quality and access to urban green and blue spaces.
  • Urban planning should also be biodiversity-inclusive, “enhancing native biodiversity, ecological connectivity and integrity, and improving human health and well-being and connection to nature.”
Aichi biodiversity targets & Nagoya Protocol:
  • Earlier, the CBD had launched the Aichi biodiversity targets for 2020, which included safeguarding of all ecosystems that provide services for humanity’s survival, and the Nagoya Protocol which went into effect in 2014 to ensure sharing of biodiversity access and benefits.

What is the roadmap to 2030 and 2050?

The key aspects of the GBF goals for 2050 deal with
  • Maintaining ecosystem integrity and health to halt extinctions,
  • Measuring and valuing ecosystem services provided by biodiversity,
  • Sharing monetary and non-monetary gains from genetic resources
  • Digital sequencing of genetic resources with indigenous people and local communities
  • Raising resources for all countries to close a biodiversity finance gap of an estimated $700 billion.
GBF has specific provisions on implementing and monitoring:
  • Member nations need to submit a revised and updated national biodiversity strategy and action plan in the conference to be held in 2024.
  • Further, the parties to the CBD should submit national reports in 2026 and 2029 to help prepare global reviews.
  • High level discussions on the progress reviews should be held in 2024 and 2026.
  • Countries would have to review existing laws relating to not just the environment, but areas such as industry, agriculture and land use, to ensure that the national strategy and action plan adequately protects biodiversity.
  • For instance, business and industry, including transnational corporations would have to assess, monitor and report the risks and impacts of their operations and portfolios.
  • They must provide information for sustainable consumption and comply with the rules on benefit-sharing. Perverse incentives that affect biodiversity should be eliminated.

What funding arrangements are planned?

  • Signatories aim to ensure $200 billion per year is channelled to conservation initiatives, from public and private sources.
  • Wealthier countries should contribute at least $20 billion of this every year by 2025, and at least $30 billion a year by 2030.
  • The Global Environment Facility (GEF), a multilateral body that partners countries and agencies, has been asked to establish in 2023, and until 2030, a Special Trust Fund to support the implementation of the GBF.

Challenges to protecting biodiversity

  • The major challenge to protecting and expanding biodiversity conservation is the use of GDP as the chief determinant of development.
  • GDP is based on a faulty application of economics that excludes “depreciation of assets” like nature which is degraded by relentless extraction of resources.
  • Appreciation of nature, and measuring “inclusive wealth”, which captures not just financial and produced capital but also human, social and natural capital.
  • The UN’s effort to measure wealth more broadly through its “Inclusive Wealth” (IW) report showed in 2018 that although 135 countries did better on inclusive wealth in 2014 compared to 1990, the global GDP growth rate considerably outpaced IW: an average of 1.8% per year for IW compared to 3.4% for GDP per year during the period.

-Source: The Hindu

March 2024