An outbreak of a highly contagious animal disease, Peste Des Petits Ruminants, has recently killed 60 sheep and goats and affected around 200 in the highland pastures of the Lahaul and Spiti district of Himachal Pradesh.
GS II: Health
Dimensions of the Article:
- About Peste Des Petits Ruminants (PPR)
- Impact and Eradication Efforts
About Peste Des Petits Ruminants (PPR):
- PPR is a highly contagious viral disease affecting sheep and goats, characterized by high mortality rates.
- It is caused by a virus belonging to the family Paramyxoviridae and the genus Morbillivirus, closely related to viruses such as rinderpest, measles, and canine distemper.
- PPRV causes a variety of clinical signs and immunosuppression, making affected animals more susceptible to other infections.
- Clinical signs include fever, eye and nasal discharges, mouth sores, diarrhea, listlessness, respiratory signs (coughing and pneumonia), abortion, and death.
- Case fatality rates can be as high as 90%, although the average is around 20%.
- PPR primarily spreads through close contact, with susceptible animals inhaling the virus from coughing and sneezing of infected animals.
- Indirect transmission can occur through contact with contaminated objects (fomites) such as feed troughs and bedding.
- Secretions from infected animals’ eyes, nose, mouth, and feces serve as sources of PPRV.
- PPR was first described in 1942 in Côte d’Ivoire and has since spread across large regions in Africa, the Middle East, and Asia.
- Outbreaks have been reported in various states of India, including Himachal Pradesh, Andhra Pradesh, West Bengal, Telangana, Karnataka, and Chhattisgarh.
Impact and Eradication Efforts:
- PPR can cause significant losses, with high mortality rates and economic implications for livestock owners.
- It is important to note that the PPR virus does not infect humans.
- A global initiative led by the Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) and the World Organisation for Animal Health (OIE) aims to eradicate PPR by 2030 through coordinated vaccination campaigns and control measures.
Source: Indian Express