Ram Prasad Bismil was born on June 11, 1897 in a nondescript village in the United Provinces’ (now Uttar Pradesh) Shahjahanpur district.
GS I: History
Dimensions of the Article:
- Early Life and Association with Arya Samaj
- The Mainpuri Conspiracy
- Founding the Hindustan Republican Association (HRA)
- The Kakori Train Action
- Death and Legacy
Early Life and Association with Arya Samaj:
- Ram Prasad Bismil, a revered freedom fighter in India, was known for his revolutionary spirit and poetic depth.
- Born into a Rajput Tomar family, he learned Hindi from his father and Urdu from a nearby maulvi during his childhood.
- Bismil attended an English medium school in Shahjahanpur, which exposed him to multiple languages and nurtured his writing and poetic instincts.
- He joined the influential organization Arya Samaj, becoming a prolific writer and poet under various pen names, including ‘Bismil’ meaning ‘wounded’ or ‘restless.’
The Mainpuri Conspiracy:
- Disillusioned by the moderate approach of the Congress Party, Bismil decided to pursue India’s freedom through force rather than negotiations.
- He founded the revolutionary organization Matrivedi and collaborated with fellow revolutionary Genda Lal Dixit.
- In 1918, Bismil wrote his renowned poem, “Mainpuri ki Pratigya,” which expressed his nationalist sentiments and gained popularity among locals.
- He carried out several acts of looting government offices in Mainpuri district to raise funds for his organization.
Founding the Hindustan Republican Association (HRA):
- After spending time underground and engaging in writing, Bismil returned to Shahjahanpur in 1920.
- Following the suspension of the Non-Cooperation Movement by Mahatma Gandhi, Bismil decided to establish his own party.
- The Hindustan Republican Association (HRA) was formed, with Bismil as a founding member, along with Ashfaqullah Khan, Sachindra Nath Bakshi, and Jogesh Chandra Chatterjee.
- Their manifesto, penned by Bismil, advocated for an organized and armed revolution to establish a federal Republic of United States of India.
The Kakori Train Action:
- The Kakori train robbery in 1925 was a significant action undertaken by the HRA.
- The revolutionaries aimed to rob the train carrying treasury bags from Shahjahanpur to Lucknow, intending to fund their activities and generate publicity.
- Bismil, Ashfaqullah Khan, and others successfully looted the treasury bags but, unfortunately, one passenger lost his life during the incident.
- The robbery drew both British wrath and mixed reactions from the Indian public.
Death and Legacy:
- Bismil, Ashfaqullah Khan, and Rajendranath Lahiri were sentenced to death after a lengthy trial.
- On December 19, 1927, Bismil was executed at the age of 30.
- Bismil’s legacy lives on through his extensive body of poetry, which inspired Indians to join the freedom struggle and championed equality and human dignity.
- He also symbolizes communal harmony due to his close friendship with Ashfaqullah Khan.
- In his final letter, Bismil called for Hindu-Muslim unity as a lasting tribute to their sacrifice.
-Source: Indian Express