Call Us Now

+91 9606900005 / 04

For Enquiry

About Ram Prasad Bismil


Ram Prasad Bismil was born on June 11, 1897 in a nondescript village in the United Provinces’ (now Uttar Pradesh) Shahjahanpur district.


GS I: History

Dimensions of the Article:

  1. Early Life and Association with Arya Samaj
  2. The Mainpuri Conspiracy
  3. Founding the Hindustan Republican Association (HRA)
  4. The Kakori Train Action
  5. Death and Legacy

Early Life and Association with Arya Samaj:

  • Ram Prasad Bismil, a revered freedom fighter in India, was known for his revolutionary spirit and poetic depth.
  • Born into a Rajput Tomar family, he learned Hindi from his father and Urdu from a nearby maulvi during his childhood.
  • Bismil attended an English medium school in Shahjahanpur, which exposed him to multiple languages and nurtured his writing and poetic instincts.
  • He joined the influential organization Arya Samaj, becoming a prolific writer and poet under various pen names, including ‘Bismil’ meaning ‘wounded’ or ‘restless.’

The Mainpuri Conspiracy:

  • Disillusioned by the moderate approach of the Congress Party, Bismil decided to pursue India’s freedom through force rather than negotiations.
  • He founded the revolutionary organization Matrivedi and collaborated with fellow revolutionary Genda Lal Dixit.
  • In 1918, Bismil wrote his renowned poem, “Mainpuri ki Pratigya,” which expressed his nationalist sentiments and gained popularity among locals.
  • He carried out several acts of looting government offices in Mainpuri district to raise funds for his organization.

Founding the Hindustan Republican Association (HRA):

  • After spending time underground and engaging in writing, Bismil returned to Shahjahanpur in 1920.
  • Following the suspension of the Non-Cooperation Movement by Mahatma Gandhi, Bismil decided to establish his own party.
  • The Hindustan Republican Association (HRA) was formed, with Bismil as a founding member, along with Ashfaqullah Khan, Sachindra Nath Bakshi, and Jogesh Chandra Chatterjee.
  • Their manifesto, penned by Bismil, advocated for an organized and armed revolution to establish a federal Republic of United States of India.

The Kakori Train Action:

  • The Kakori train robbery in 1925 was a significant action undertaken by the HRA.
  • The revolutionaries aimed to rob the train carrying treasury bags from Shahjahanpur to Lucknow, intending to fund their activities and generate publicity.
  • Bismil, Ashfaqullah Khan, and others successfully looted the treasury bags but, unfortunately, one passenger lost his life during the incident.
  • The robbery drew both British wrath and mixed reactions from the Indian public.

Death and Legacy:

  • Bismil, Ashfaqullah Khan, and Rajendranath Lahiri were sentenced to death after a lengthy trial.
  • On December 19, 1927, Bismil was executed at the age of 30.
  • Bismil’s legacy lives on through his extensive body of poetry, which inspired Indians to join the freedom struggle and championed equality and human dignity.
  • He also symbolizes communal harmony due to his close friendship with Ashfaqullah Khan.
  • In his final letter, Bismil called for Hindu-Muslim unity as a lasting tribute to their sacrifice.

-Source: Indian Express

December 2023