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Recombinant Proteins

Context:

Researchers at the Department of Biochemistry, Indian Institute of Science, have developed a novel method for the production of recombinant proteins.

Relevance:

Facts for Prelims

About Recombinant Proteins:

  • Definition: These are proteins encoded by recombinant DNA that has been cloned into an expression vector, supporting gene expression and translation of messenger RNA.
  • Gene Modification: Recombinant DNA technology can modify genes, leading to the expression of mutant proteins.
  • Manipulation: These proteins are manipulated forms of native proteins, generated to increase production, modify gene sequences, and create useful commercial products.
  • Creation: They are created by fusing sequences not normally present in an organism.
  • Production: Examples include vaccine antigens, insulin, and monoclonal antibodies. These are mass-produced by growing modified bacterial, viral, or mammalian cells in large bioreactors. The most widely used organism is the yeast Pichia pastoris (now Komagataella phaffii).
Application of Recombinant Proteins:
  • Biomedical Research: Used to understand health and disease.
  • Biotherapeutics: Used in treatments.
  • Drug Delivery and Disease Treatment: Produce protein-based polymers, antibodies, and enzymes, and protein scaffolds for tissue engineering.
What is Protein?
  • Role: Proteins are the workhorse in biological systems, facilitating most biological processes in a cell, including gene expression, cell growth, proliferation, nutrient uptake, intercellular communication, and apoptosis.
  • Synthesis: The blueprint for protein synthesis is stored in DNA, which serves as a template for highly regulated transcriptional processes to produce messenger RNA (mRNA).

-Source: The Hindu


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