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About The Electric Vehicles

Context:

A crucial element of the world’s transition to becoming net-zero is electric vehicles (EVs). However, hybrid electric vehicles (EVs) present a big opportunity for economically developing countries to begin the transition instead of waiting.

Relevance:

GS III: Indian Economy

Dimensions of the Article:

  1. Electric Vehicles (EVs)
  2. Types of EVs
  3. EV Sales in India
  4. Major Schemes/Initiatives for Promoting EVs in India

Electric Vehicles (EVs):

  • An electric vehicle uses one or more electric motors or traction motors for propulsion.
  • It can be powered by self-contained batteries, solar panels, or an electric generator.
Origin and Increasing Scope in India:
  • The push for EVs is driven by global climate agendas, such as the Paris Agreement, which aims to reduce carbon emissions and limit global warming.
  • The global adoption of EVs has been rapidly increasing.
  • In 2020, around 2.1 million EVs were sold worldwide, and the global EV fleet reached 8.0 million.
  • Falling battery costs and improved performance efficiency are contributing to the growing demand for EVs.
Types of EVs:
  • Hybrid EVs (HEVs): These vehicles combine a conventional internal combustion engine (ICE) with an electric propulsion system, resulting in lower fuel usage. Example: Toyota Hyryder in India.
  • Plug-in Hybrid Vehicles (PHEVs): PHEVs have a hybrid drivetrain that uses both an ICE and electric power. They can be charged by plugging into a power source. Example: Chevrolet Volt.
  • Battery Electric Vehicles (BEVs): BEVs run solely on electric power and do not have an ICE or fuel tank. They are powered by rechargeable batteries. Example: Tata Nexon in India, Nissan Leaf, and Tesla Model S.
  • Fuel Cell Vehicles (FCVs): FCVs use hydrogen and oxygen to produce electricity, with water being the only byproduct. Example: Toyota Mirai and Honda Clarity.
EV Sales in India:
  • Over the past three years, there has been a remarkable growth of over 2,218% in EV sales in India.
  • Currently, EVs make up around 5% of total vehicle sales in the country.
  • In the 2022-23 fiscal year, cumulative sales of EVs in India exceeded 1 million units for the first time.
  • Two-wheelers account for more than 60% of all EV sales in India.
  • The government has set ambitious targets for EV sales by 2030, aiming for 30% of private cars, 70% of commercial vehicles, and 80% of two and three-wheelers to be electric.
  • The promotion of e-mobility in India aligns with the objectives of reducing emissions and decreasing reliance on costly fuel imports.

Major Schemes/Initiatives for Promoting EVs in India:

  • National Electric Mobility Mission Plan (NEMPP) 2020: Launched in 2013 with targets for electric vehicle adoption and reduction of oil imports and CO2 emissions.
  • Faster Adoption and Manufacturing of Electric and Hybrid Vehicles in India (FAME India) scheme: Launched in 2015 to promote the manufacturing and adoption of electric and hybrid vehicle technology through subsidies.
  • Production-linked incentive (PLI) Scheme – National Programme on Advanced Chemistry Cell (ACC) Battery Storage: Aims to boost the domestic manufacturing of advanced chemistry cell batteries for electric vehicles.
  • Go Electric Campaign: Launched to raise awareness about the benefits of electric mobility and inform potential EV owners about government incentives.

Source: The Hindu


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