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About Tuberculosis

Focus: GS II: Health

Why in News?

Recently, IndianOil embarks on Intensified TB Elimination Project in Uttar Pradesh and Chhattisgarh in collaboration with Central TB Division.

About Tuberculosis

  • TB remains the world’s deadliest infectious killer.
  • Each day, over 4000 people lose their lives to TB and close to 30,000 people fall ill with this preventable and curable disease
  • TB is caused by bacteria (Mycobacterium tuberculosis) that most often affect the lungs.
  • Transmission: TB is spread from person to person through the air. When people with TB cough, sneeze or spit, they propel the TB germs into the air.
  • Symptoms: Cough with sputum and blood at times, chest pains, weakness, weight loss, fever and night sweats.
  • Treatment: TB is a treatable and curable disease. It is treated with a standard 6 month course of 4 antimicrobial drugs that are provided with information, supervision and support to the patient by a health worker or trained volunteer.
  • Anti-TB medicines have been used for decades and strains that are resistant to 1 or more of the medicines have been documented in every country surveyed.
  • Multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB) is a form of TB caused by bacteria that do not respond to isoniazid and rifampicin, the 2 most powerful, first-line anti-TB drugs. MDR-TB is treatable and curable by using second-line drugs.
  • Extensively drug-resistant TB (XDR-TB) is a more serious form of MDR-TB caused by bacteria that do not respond to the most effective second-line anti-TB drugs, often leaving patients without any further treatment options.

Nikshay Poshan Yojana (NPY)

  • It is a direct benefit transfer (DBT) scheme for nutritional support to Tuberculosis (TB) patients rolled out in April 2018 by Ministry of Health and Family Welfare.
  • The scheme is a centrally sponsored scheme under National Health Mission (NHM).
    • Financial norms of NHM in terms of cost sharing are applicable to the scheme.
  • This scheme is implemented across all States and UTs in India.
  • All TB patients notified on or after 1st April 2018 including all existing TB patients under treatment are eligible to receive incentives.
  • The patient must be registered\notified on the NIKSHAY portal.

About Pradhan Mantri TB Mukt Bharat Abhiyaan

  • It has been envisioned to bring together all community stakeholders to support those on TB treatment and accelerate the country’s progress towards TB elimination.
  • This is aimed at working towards TB elimination from the country by 2025.
  • Under the scheme, individuals, NGOs and corporates can adopt TB patients by committing support for 1-3 years. 
  • To join the initiative, they have to register on the site, which has an anonymous list of TB patients, categorized according to the primary health centres, blocks, districts and states. 
  • The sponsors can select the number of patients as per their capacity.
Components of the scheme: 
  • The Ni-kshay Mitra initiative which forms a vital component of the `Abhiyaan’ is also launched along with the Abhiyaan.
    • This portal provides a platform for donors to provide various forms of support to those undergoing TB treatment. 
  • The three-pronged support includes:
    • Nutritional, 
    • Additional diagnostic,
    • Vocational support. 

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