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About Yellow Fever

Context:

A total of 117 passengers of Indian Origin that have arrived from Sudan are currently quarantined because they were not vaccinated against Yellow Fever.

Relevance:

GS II: Health

Dimensions of the Article:

  1. Yellow Fever
  2. Yellow Fever Symptoms
  3. Prevention and Treatment of Yellow Fever

Yellow Fever

  • Yellow fever is named so because it is often associated with jaundice, which causes a yellowing of the skin and eyes.
  • Yellow fever is endemic in 47 countries in Africa, Central, and South America, according to the World Health Organization (WHO).
  • About 90% of reported cases occur in sub-Saharan Africa.
Transmission:
  • The yellow fever virus is transmitted to humans through the bites of infected mosquitoes, with the most common vector being the Aedes species – the same mosquito that spreads other viruses like Zika, Chikungunya, and Dengue.
  • The Haemogogus mosquito also spreads the virus, mainly found in jungle areas. Yellow fever cannot be spread from one person to another through contact.

Yellow Fever Symptoms

Incubation Period

  • Yellow fever virus incubates in the body for 3 to 6 days after contraction

Two Phases of Symptoms

Symptoms usually present themselves in 2 phases

  • The first, “acute”, phase causes fever, muscle pain or vomiting
  • Most patients improve and their symptoms disappear after 3 to 4 days

Second Toxic Phase

  • A small percentage of people enter a second, more toxic phase within 24 hours of the initial remission
  • They will experience high fever, JAUNDICE, and abdominal pain with vomiting and deteriorating kidney function

Prevention and Treatment of Yellow Fever

Yellow fever is a preventable disease, and its treatment primarily focuses on managing the symptoms. Below are the details:

Prevention:

  • Yellow fever can be prevented by getting vaccinated with the 17D vaccine, which provides lifelong immunity against the disease.

Treatment:

  • There is no specific treatment for yellow fever, but supportive treatment can help in managing symptoms such as dehydration, fever, and infection.
  • Bacterial infections that are associated with yellow fever can be treated with antibiotics to prevent further complications.

-Source: The Hindu


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