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Anarcho-Capitalism in Spotlight


The term “anarcho-capitalism” has garnered recent attention, notably following Javier Milei’s electoral triumph in Argentina. Milei, a self-proclaimed anarcho-capitalist, advocates for the abolition of the state, proposing a system where private companies manage law and order within a free market.


GS III: Indian Economy (Capitalism)

Dimensions of the Article:

  1. Anarcho-Capitalism: A Political and Economic Philosophy
  2. Concerns
  3. Anarcho-Capitalist Responses:

Anarcho-Capitalism: A Political and Economic Philosophy


  • Anarcho-capitalism is a political philosophy and economic theory advocating for the voluntary exchange of goods and services in a society primarily regulated by the market rather than the state.


  • Coined by Murray Rothbard, a prominent figure in the American libertarian movement from the 1950s.

Core Tenets:

  • Advocates for voluntary exchanges in a society regulated by the market.
  • Argues that private companies in a free market can efficiently provide policing and legal services.

Private Sector Efficiency:

  • Asserts that private policing and legal systems, similar to private sectors offering superior products, can outperform state-monopolized counterparts.

Operational Model:

  • In an anarcho-capitalist society, individuals pay private police and courts for protection and dispute resolution.

Accountability Through Competition:

  • Private companies, driven by customer patronage, are argued to be more accountable. Dissatisfied customers can switch to competing services.

Advocacy for Competitive Markets:

  • Anarcho-capitalists advocate for competitive markets, contending that they ensure top-tier and cost-effective police and legal services.
  • This stands in contrast to state-funded systems, providing individuals the freedom to select services aligned with their preferences and needs.


  • Potential for Armed Conflicts: Multiple private firms in one region may lead to armed conflicts and chaos.
  • Wealth-Based Justice: Skepticism about a system favoring the wealthy, allowing them to evade justice by paying more to private firms.
  • Marginalization of the Poor: Apprehensions that a profit-driven system could marginalize the poor, limiting their access to justice.
  • Lack of Accountability: Concerns that private firms may not be accountable to the broader public, potentially compromising justice for financial interests.
  • Risk of Vigilantism: Absence of a centralized authority may increase the risk of vigilantism.
  • Societal Inequalities: Worsening societal inequalities, providing better legal protection for those who can afford premium services.
  • Inconsistent Legal Standards: Absence of a standardized legal framework may result in varying standards of justice.

Anarcho-Capitalist Responses:

  • Market Satisfaction: Private firms aim to satisfy the larger market, not just the wealthy, ensuring fair and accessible justice for all.
  • Accountability through Patronage: In a competitive market, private firms depend on customer patronage, making them accountable to the public and responsive to their needs.
  • Access for the Poor: Private firms may strive to meet the demand at the bottom of the pyramid, potentially offering better chances of justice for the poor.
  • Agreements on Common Rules: Competitive pressures among private firms would lead to agreements on common rules, preventing conflicts and potential vigilantism.

-Source: The Hindu

February 2024