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Child Safety in the Online World


In the initial days of February, Mark Zuckerberg, the CEO of Meta, publicly apologized to parents whose children fell victim to online predators during a Congressional hearing. This hearing was convened to scrutinize and investigate the widespread problem of online child sexual exploitation, with executives from these companies being criticized for neglecting their responsibility to safeguard children on social media platforms.


GS2- Welfare Schemes for Vulnerable Sections of the population by the Centre and States and the Performance of these Schemes


  • Role of Media and Social Networking Sites in Internal Security Challenges
  • Basics of Cyber Security

Mains Question:

What are the dangers and risks for children in the virtual space. Also discuss the responsibility of tech companies and government’s regulatory frameworks in this regard. (15 Marks, 250 Words).

Issues with Online Child Safety:

  • Tech giants are increasingly finding themselves amidst a storm of global protests, not only related to privacy concerns but also regarding the online security of users.
  • Worldwide, parents and activists are fervently advocating for tech companies to take responsibility and ensure that their platforms are ‘safe by design’ for children and young users.
  • In the past year, a UNICEF report titled ‘The Metaverse, Extended Reality and Children’ attempted to analyze the potential evolution of virtual environments and their likely impact on children and young adults.
  • These technologies do present various potential benefits for children, particularly in the realms of education and health.

How Significant are the Risks?

  • The report by UNICEF emphasizes that potential risks to children are considerable. These risks encompass safety issues like exposure to explicit sexual content, bullying, sexual harassment, and abuse, which can feel more lifelike in immersive virtual environments compared to current platforms.
  • Additionally, vast amounts of data, including non-verbal behavior, are collected, potentially enabling a few major tech companies to facilitate highly personalized profiling, advertising, and increased surveillance. This, in turn, affects children’s privacy, security, and other rights and freedoms.
  • While the complete immersion promised by the Metaverse is not yet a reality, there are already multiple virtual environments and games that, although not entirely immersive, indicate potential dangers within that realm.
  • For example, in the widely popular Grand Theft Auto, which has both adult and child versions, there are certain inappropriate instructions in the adult version and adolescents are likely to choose the adult version, raising concerns about the messages conveyed to children.
  • Recent media reports also highlight instances where children are using Artificial Intelligence to generate inappropriate child abuse images.
  • Furthermore, the mental health aspect is a concern, with children potentially experiencing trauma, solicitation, and abuse online, leading to deep psychological scars that can impact their real-world lives.
  • Even seemingly innocuous sharing of images online can be manipulated by malicious predators. To protect the information that children share online, the importance of end-to-end encryption is often emphasized.

Extent of Generative AI’s Influence:

  • According to a paper from the Davos World Economic Forum last year, generative AI presents potential opportunities, including aiding with homework, providing understandable explanations of complex concepts, and offering personalized learning experiences that adapt to a child’s individual learning style and pace.
  • The paper highlights that children can utilize AI to engage in activities such as creating art, composing music, writing stories, and developing software with minimal or no coding skills, thus fostering creativity.
  • Additionally, for children with disabilities, generative AI opens up new possibilities by enabling them to interface and co-create with digital systems through text, speech, or images.
  • However, the report also acknowledges the potential risks associated with generative AI, emphasizing that it could be exploited by malicious actors or unintentionally lead to harm or widespread disruptions that may adversely affect children’s prospects and well-being.
  • Generative AI has demonstrated the ability to instantly generate text-based disinformation that is indistinguishable from, and even more persuasive than, content created by humans.
  • Moreover, AI-generated images can sometimes be indistinguishable from reality. As children’s cognitive capacities are still developing, they are particularly vulnerable to the risks of misinformation and disinformation.
  • There is an ongoing debate about the potential impact on young minds of interacting with chatbots that exhibit a human-like tone.

Way Forward:

  • The primary responsibility lies with tech companies, who need to implement ‘safety by design.’ The recent Congressional hearings have underscored the awareness of these companies regarding the negative impact their apps and systems can have on children.
  • Referring to the Convention on the Rights of the Child, UNICEF provides guidance outlining nine requirements for child-centered AI.
  • This includes supporting children’s development and well-being and safeguarding their data and privacy. UNICEF suggests that tech companies adhere to the highest existing data protection standards for children’s data in virtual environments and the metaverse.
  • Furthermore, governments are urged to regularly assess and adjust regulatory frameworks to prevent the violation of children’s rights by such technologies.
  • They should also leverage their authority to address harmful content and behavior that poses a threat to children online.


Ultimately, everyone should begin with the assumption that the rules established in the real world to protect children should equally apply and prevail in the online realm.

February 2024