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Current Affairs 04 August 2023


  1. Biological Diversity (Amendment) Bill, 2021
  2. Proposed Inclusion of Communities in Jammu and Kashmir’s Scheduled Tribes (ST) List
  3. China’s Stapled Visas
  4. Plastic Overshoot Day
  5. Cell-Free DNA (cfDNA)
  6. Sovereign Credit Rating
  7. Lumpy skin disease
  8. ZARTH App

Biological Diversity (Amendment) Bill, 2021


The Rajya Sabha passed the Biological Diversity (Amendment) Bill 2021 about a week after it was cleared by the Lok Sabha. The Act aims to conserve biodiversity, promote its sustainable use and equitable sharing of benefits that arise therein.


GS-III: Environment and Ecology (Conservation of Environment and Ecology)

Dimensions of the Article:

  1. Biological Diversity (Amendment) Bill, 2021
  2. The need for amending Biodiversity Act 2002
  3. Significance and Criticism of the Biodiversity Bill

Biological Diversity (Amendment) Bill, 2021

  • The Biological Diversity (Amendment) Bill 2021 seeks to amend the Biological Diversity Act, 2002 in order to fulfil India’s obligations under the Convention of Biological Diversity and Nagoya Protocol.
  • The Bill seeks to reduce the pressure on wild medicinal plants by encouraging the cultivation of medicinal plants.
  • The Bill proposes to exempt AYUSH practitioners from intimating biodiversity boards for accessing biological resources or knowledge.
  • The Bill also facilitates fast-tracking of research, simplify the patent application process, decriminalises certain offences.
  • The Bill brings more foreign investments in biological resources, research, patent and commercial utilisation, without compromising the national interest.
  • The bill focuses on regulating who can access biological resources and knowledge and how access will be monitored.
  • The Bill has also clarified and strengthened the role of state biodiversity boards.
  • In the direction of Decriminalization, Violations of the law related to access to biological resources and benefit-sharing with communities, which are currently treated as criminal offences and are non-bailable, have been proposed to be made civil offences.

The need for amending Biodiversity Act 2002

  • People from AYUSH medicine urged the government to simplify, streamline and reduce the compliance burden to provide for a conducive environment for collaborative research and investments.
  • They also sought to simplify the patent application process, widen the scope of access and benefit-sharing with local communities.
  • Ayush companies have been seeking relaxation of the benefit-sharing provisions.
  1. Case study: Divya Pharmacy founded by Swami Ramdev and Acharya Balkrishna in Uttarakhand. The Uttarakhand Biodiversity Board (UBB) sent a notice to Divya Pharmacy in 2016 stating that the company was in violation of the Biodiversity Act for using biological resources from the state for its ayurvedic formulations, without intimating the board and that it was liable to pay an access and benefit-sharing fee.
    1. The company filed a writ petition in the Uttarakhand high court challenging the powers of the biodiversity board to determine benefit-sharing by Indian companies.
    2. The court in 2018 upheld the powers of the biodiversity board in its judgement.
    • Under the Biodiversity Act 2002, national and state biodiversity boards are required to consult the biodiversity management committees while taking any decision relating to the use of biological resources.

Significance and Criticism of the Biodiversity Bill

Significance of the Bill:
  • Aims to enhance the “ease of doing business” and support the AYUSH industry (Ayurveda, Yoga and Naturopathy, Unani, Siddha, and Homeopathy).
Criticism of the Bill:
  • Exempts “codified traditional knowledge” and the AYUSH industry from benefit sharing, depriving local communities of benefits from biological resources.
  • Lack of clear definition for “codified traditional knowledge” may lead to potential misuse.
  • Allows SBBs to represent BMCs for benefit sharing terms, potentially marginalizing BMCs.
  • Proposed amendments introduced while the Act is not fully implemented.
  • Lack of transparency in money received from ABS (Access and Benefit Sharing) and sharing with local communities.

-Source: The Hindu

Proposed Inclusion of Communities in Jammu and Kashmir’s Scheduled Tribes (ST) List


The Indian government has introduced the Constitution (Jammu and Kashmir) Scheduled Tribes Order (Amendment) Bill, 2023, aiming to include four communities in the Scheduled Tribes (ST) list in Jammu and Kashmir.

  • The proposed inclusion of the “Gadda Brahmin,” “Koli,” “Paddari Tribe,” and “Pahari Ethnic Group” has sparked apprehensions regarding the distribution of reservation benefits.


GS II: Polity and Governance

Dimensions of the Article:

  1. Criteria for Inclusion in the Scheduled Tribe (ST) List
  2. Process of Adding a Community to the Scheduled Tribe (ST) List
  3. Who are the Scheduled Tribes?
  4. Constitutional Provisions regarding STs

Criteria for Inclusion in the Scheduled Tribe (ST) List:

The inclusion of a community in the Scheduled Tribe (ST) list is determined based on several criteria to establish its tribal identity and distinct cultural characteristics.

  • Ethnological Traits: The community’s distinct and identifiable ethnological traits are considered to determine its tribal identity.
  • Traditional Practices and Customs: The community’s traditional practices, customs, and way of life are examined to assess their adherence to tribal culture.
  • Unique Culture: The presence of a unique and distinctive culture that sets the community apart from other groups is taken into account.
  • Geographical Isolation: The community’s historical and continuous presence in specific regions, along with its geographical isolation, is considered.
  • Socio-economic Backwardness: The level of socio-economic backwardness faced by the community is also evaluated.
  • Lack of Defined Criteria: Notably, the Constitution of India does not provide a specific definition or set criteria for the recognition of Scheduled Tribes. The determination is made based on a combination of the above factors.

Process of Adding a Community to the Scheduled Tribe (ST) List:

  • State/UT Level: The process begins at the State or Union Territory level, where the concerned government or administration recommends the inclusion of a specific community in the ST list.
  • Union Ministry Examination: The proposal from the State/UT government is sent to the Union Ministry of Tribal Affairs for examination and further deliberations.
  • Ministry’s Deliberation: The Ministry of Tribal Affairs examines the proposal and, after its own deliberations, forwards it to the Registrar General of India (RGI).
  • RGI Approval: The proposal is reviewed and approved by the Registrar General of India.
  • National Commission for Scheduled Tribes (NCST): The approved proposal is then sent to the National Commission for Scheduled Tribes for further consideration.
  • Back to Union Government: After scrutiny by the NCST, the proposal is sent back to the Union government.
  • President’s Assent: The inclusion of the community in the Scheduled Tribes list is finalized when the President of India gives assent to a Bill that amends the Constitution (Scheduled Tribes) Order, 1950, after it is passed in both the Lok Sabha and Rajya Sabha.

Who are the Scheduled Tribes?

The Constitution does not define the criteria for recognition of Scheduled Tribes.

  • However, Article 366(25) of the Constitution only provides process to define Scheduled Tribes: “Scheduled Tribes means such tribes or tribal communities or parts of or groups within such tribes or tribal communities as are deemed under Article 342 to be Scheduled Tribes for the purposes of this Constitution.”
  • Article 342(1): The President may with respect to any State or Union Territory, and where it is a State, after consultation with the Governor, by a public notification, specify the tribes or tribal communities or part of or groups within tribes or tribal communities as Scheduled Tribe in relation to that State or Union Territory.
  • The Dhebar Commission (1973) created a separate category “Primitive Tribal Groups (PTGs)” which was renamed in 2006 as “Particularly Vulnerable Tribal Groups (PVTGs)”.

Constitutional Provisions regarding STs

  • Art. 15(4): Special provisions for advancement of other backward classes (which includes STs);
  • Art. 23: Prohibition of traffic in human beings and beggar and other similar form of forced labour;
  • Art. 24: Forbidding Child Labour.
  • Art. 29: Protection of Interests of Minorities (which includes STs);
  • Art. 46: The State shall promote, with special care, the educational and economic interests of the weaker sections of the people, and in particular, of the Scheduled Castes, and the Scheduled Tribes, and shall protect them from social injustice and all forms of exploitation.
  • Art.164(1): Provides for Tribal Affairs Ministers in Bihar, MP and Orissa;
  • Art. 243: Reservation of seats in Panchayats.
  • Art.244: Clause (1) Provisions of Fifth Schedule shall apply to the administration & control of the Scheduled Areas and Scheduled Tribes in any State other than the states of Assam, Meghalaya, Mizoram and Tripura which are covered under Sixth Schedule, under Clause (2) of this Article.
  • Art. 275: Grants in-Aid to specified States (STs&SAs) covered under Fifth and Sixth Schedules of the Constitution.
  • Art. 330: Reservation of seats for STs in Lok Sabha;
  • Art. 337- Reservation of seats for STs in State Legislatures;
  • Art. 334: 10 years period for reservation (Amended several times to extend the period);
  • Art. 350: Right to conserve distinct Language, Script or Culture;
  • Art. 350: Instruction in Mother Tongue.
  • Art. 371: Special provisions in respect of NE States and Sikkim.
Status of STs in India
  • The Census 2011 has revealed that there are said to be 705 ethnic groups notified as Scheduled Tribes (STs).
  • Over 10 crore Indians are notified as STs, of which 1.04 crore live in urban areas.
  • The STs constitute 8.6% of the population and 11.3% of the rural population.

-Source: The Hindu

China’s Stapled Visas


Recently, India withdrew its eight-athlete ‘Wushu’ martial arts athletes contingent from the Summer World University Games in Chengdu, China. The move came in response to China’s issuance of stapled visas to three athletes from the Indian team, all of whom were from Arunachal Pradesh.


GS II: International Relations

Dimensions of the Article:

  1. What are Stapled Visas?
  2. Reasons for China Issuing Stapled Visas to Indian Nationals from Arunachal Pradesh and Jammu and Kashmir
  3. Impacts and Concerns Regarding Stapled Visas

What are Stapled Visas?

Stapled visas are travel documents issued by China, where an unstamped piece of paper is attached to a passport using staples or a pin.

  • Difference from Regular Visas: Unlike regular visas that are affixed and stamped directly on the passport, stapled visas can be detached.
  • Territorial Disputes: China’s issuance of stapled visas is linked to its ongoing territorial disputes with India, particularly concerning Arunachal Pradesh.
  • Validity Dispute: While China considers stapled visas as valid travel documents, India does not accept them as legitimate visas and refuses to acknowledge their authenticity.

Reasons for China Issuing Stapled Visas to Indian Nationals from Arunachal Pradesh and Jammu and Kashmir

  • Dispute over Sovereignty and Boundary: China challenges India’s sovereignty over Arunachal Pradesh and disputes the legitimacy of the McMahon Line agreed upon in the Simla Convention of 1914.
  • Boundary Transgressions: The Line of Actual Control (LAC) disagreement leads to repeated Chinese transgressions into Indian territory, further complicating the dispute.
  • Claims on Arunachal Pradesh: China claims approximately 90,000 sq km of Arunachal Pradesh as part of its territory and uses Chinese names for places in the region on its maps.
  • Undermining India’s Sovereignty: Issuing stapled visas is seen as a tactic by China to challenge India’s control and authority over parts of its own territory.
  • Unilateral Assertion: China’s actions periodically underline its unilateral claim to Indian territory, fueling tensions between the two countries.

Impacts and Concerns Regarding Stapled Visas

  • Confusion and Uncertainty: Stapled visas create confusion and uncertainty for travellers as the acceptance and validity of such visas vary. Travellers may face difficulties and uncertainties at immigration checkpoints.
  • Rejection by India: India consistently rejects the validity of stapled visas issued by China. The Indian government does not recognize these visas as legitimate travel documents.
  • Diplomatic Tensions: China’s issuance of stapled visas and India’s rejection of them contribute to diplomatic tensions between the two nations. It adds strain to their bilateral relations and complicates the resolution of territorial disputes.
  • Challenging Sovereignty: China’s practice of issuing stapled visas to residents of Arunachal Pradesh and Jammu and Kashmir is seen as an attempt to challenge India’s sovereignty over these regions, further escalating the tensions.
  • Impact on People-to-People Contacts: The use of stapled visas can hinder people-to-people contacts between India and China, affecting cultural and educational exchanges, tourism, and other activities involving citizens of both countries.

-Source: The Hindu

Plastic Overshoot Day


The Plastic Overshoot Day Report by Swiss-based research consultancy Earth Action (EA) sheds light on the alarming issue of plastic pollution and its implications on the environment.


GS III: Environment and Ecology

Dimensions of the Article:

  1. Major Findings of the Report on Plastic Overshoot Day
  2. Major Significance of Plastic
  3. Issues Associated with Plastic Waste in India

Major Findings of the Report on Plastic Overshoot Day:

Plastic Overshoot Day is determined based on a country’s Mismanaged Waste Index (MWI). The gap in waste management capacity and plastic consumption is called MWI.

  • Severe Plastic Pollution Crisis: The report highlights an alarming situation, with an additional 68,642,999 tonnes of plastic waste expected to enter nature in 2023, indicating a severe plastic pollution crisis.
  • 12 Countries Responsible for Mismanaged Plastic Waste: The report identifies 12 countries, including India, responsible for 52% of the world’s mismanaged plastic waste. These countries are facing significant challenges in managing their plastic waste effectively.
  • High Mismanaged Waste Percentage in Africa: Three African countries, Mozambique, Nigeria, and Kenya, have the highest mismanaged waste percentages, with rates ranging from 98.9% to 99.8%.
  • India’s Rank in Mismanaged Waste: India ranks fourth in the Mismanaged Waste Index (MWI), with 98.55% of generated waste not being effectively managed.
  • Contribution of Short-life Plastics: Short-life plastics, such as plastic packaging and single-use plastics, constitute approximately 37% of the total plastic used annually. These types of plastics pose a higher risk of leakage into the environment.
  • Plastic Overshoot Day in India: Plastic Overshoot Day for India occurred on January 6, 2023, indicating that the country’s plastic waste generation surpassed its waste management capacity on that day.
  • Lower Per-Person Consumption in India: India’s per-person consumption of plastic is 5.3 kg, which is significantly lower than the global average of 20.9 kg. This suggests that the challenge lies in effective waste management rather than excessive consumption.

Major Significance of Plastic:

  • Food Packaging and Reduced Food Waste: Plastics are widely used in food packaging, helping to extend the shelf life of perishable goods, reducing food waste, and enabling efficient transportation of goods.
  • Advancements in Medicine: Plastics play a crucial role in modern medicine by being used in medical devices such as syringes, catheters, and artificial joints, which improve patient care and enhance the quality of life.
  • Automotive Applications and Environmental Impact: Plastics are utilized in automotive applications to make vehicles lighter, leading to improved fuel efficiency and reduced emissions, contributing to a greener environment.
  • Insulation for Energy Efficiency: Plastic materials are excellent insulators for electrical and thermal purposes, helping to improve energy efficiency in buildings and electronic devices.
  • Water Conservation and Distribution: Certain types of plastics used in pipes and irrigation systems help conserve water by reducing leakages and improving water distribution efficiency.

Issues Associated with Plastic Waste in India:

  • Inadequate Waste Management Infrastructure: The lack of proper facilities for segregation, collection, transportation, and recycling of plastic waste in many municipal authorities leads to improper disposal and pollution.
  • Landfill and Dumpsite Pollution: Due to insufficient waste management, a significant portion of plastic waste ends up in landfills, open dumpsites, or littered in the environment, causing severe pollution.
  • Low Recycling Rate: India recycles only 12.3% of its plastic waste and incinerates 20%, indicating a low recycling rate and a need for improved recycling practices.
  • Single-Use Plastic Products: The widespread use of single-use plastic items like bags, bottles, straws, and packaging contributes significantly to the accumulation of plastic waste, as these products are discarded after one use.
  • Coastal Pollution: India’s coastal areas are affected by plastic waste, with rivers and water bodies acting as conduits for plastic waste to reach the oceans, causing marine pollution and harming marine life and ecosystems.
  • Health Impacts: Improper disposal and burning of plastic can release harmful chemicals and toxins, leading to adverse health effects for communities living near waste disposal sites or involved in informal recycling activities.

-Source: Down To Earth

Cell-Free DNA (cfDNA)


A notable advancement in medical science has emerged in recent years through the discovery of cell-free Deoxyribonucleic Acid (cfDNA), carrying significant implications for disease detection, diagnosis, and treatment.


GS III: Science and Technology

Dimensions of the Article:

  1. Cell-Free DNA (cfDNA)
  2. Applications of Cell-Free DNA (cfDNA)

Cell-Free DNA (cfDNA):

  • Definition: Cell-free DNA (cfDNA) refers to fragments of DNA that exist outside of cells and can be found in various body fluids.
  • Presence: Unlike the majority of DNA that is enclosed within cells, cfDNA is released into the extracellular environment under different circumstances, such as cell death or other cellular processes.
  • Historical Knowledge: Scientists have been aware of cfDNA since 1948, but it is only in the last two decades that they have begun to understand its potential applications.
  • Genetic Information: The cfDNA fragments contain genetic information, making them valuable for studying a person’s health status, potential diseases, and genetic variations.
  • Insights into Health: Analyzing cfDNA can provide insights into an individual’s health condition, allowing for early detection of diseases and monitoring of treatment effectiveness.

Applications of Cell-Free DNA (cfDNA):

  • Non-Invasive Prenatal Testing (NIPT): cfDNA analysis is used for screening chromosomal abnormalities in developing fetuses, including conditions like Down syndrome. NIPT replaces invasive procedures, reducing risks for expectant mothers and fetuses.
  • Early Cancer Detection: cfDNA sequencing, as seen in the ‘GEMINI’ test, allows for the early detection of cancers like lung cancer with high accuracy. Combining cfDNA analysis with existing methods improves overall cancer detection.
  • Organ Transplant Monitoring: Donor-derived cfDNA helps monitor the health and acceptance of transplanted organs. Fluctuations in cfDNA levels can indicate organ rejection or acceptance before other markers become evident, enabling timely intervention.
  • Biomarker for Neurological Disorders: cfDNA analysis aids in diagnosing and monitoring neurological disorders such as Alzheimer’s disease, neuronal tumors, and stroke.
  • Biomarker for Metabolic Disorders: cfDNA has the potential to detect and manage metabolic disorders like type-2 diabetes and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease.
  • Disease Research and Monitoring: Researchers use cfDNA analysis to study disease mechanisms, monitor treatment effectiveness, and gain insights into disease pathways. The versatility of cfDNA applications enhances understanding of complex diseases and their genetic factors.

-Source: The Hindu

Sovereign Credit Rating


Global credit rating agency Fitch recently downgraded US Sovereign rating from AAA to AA+.


GS III: Indian Economy

Dimensions of the Article:

  1. Sovereign Credit Rating
  2. Significance of Sovereign Credit Rating

Sovereign Credit Rating:

  • It evaluates the creditworthiness of a country or sovereign entity.
  • Governments issue debt instruments like government bonds and need to demonstrate their ability to repay debt without defaulting.
  • Sovereign credit ratings offer insights to investors about the risk associated with investing in a country’s debt, including political risks.
  • Major credit rating agencies like Standard & Poor’s, Moody’s, and Fitch Ratings conduct these assessments.
  • Economic and financial indicators, such as economic growth, fiscal policies, public debt levels, political stability, and external trade position, are considered in assigning the credit rating for a country.

Significance of Sovereign Credit Rating

Access to Funding for Development Projects:

  • A good credit rating is crucial for a country seeking funding for development projects in the international bond market.
  • Investors are more willing to invest in countries with higher credit ratings, ensuring access to capital for national development initiatives.

Attracting Foreign Direct Investment (FDI):

  • Countries with favorable credit ratings are more attractive to foreign investors.
  • A good credit rating enhances investor confidence, leading to increased foreign direct investment inflows that boost economic growth and development.

Influencing Borrowing Costs:

  • Sovereign credit rating directly affects a country’s borrowing costs in global financial markets.
  • Governments with higher credit ratings can borrow funds at lower interest rates, resulting in substantial savings on interest payments.
  • Lower borrowing costs enable countries to finance projects and manage debt more efficiently, contributing to financial stability.

-Source: Indian Express

Lumpy skin disease


A division bench of the Telangana High Court recently expressed its dissatisfaction with the lack of specific details about measures taken to control the outbreak of Lumpy Skin Disease (LSD) in cattle.


GS II: Health

Dimensions of the Article:

  1. What is the lumpy skin disease?
  2. How does it spread?
  3. Symptoms
  4. What is the geographical distribution and how did it spread to India?
  5. What are the economic implications?

What is the lumpy skin disease?

  • Lumpy skin disease is caused by the lumpy skin disease virus (LSDV), which belongs to the genus capripoxvirus, a part of the poxviridae family (smallpox and monkeypox viruses are also a part of the same family).
  • The LSDV shares antigenic similarities with the sheeppox virus (SPPV) and the goatpox virus (GTPV) or is similar in the immune response to those viruses.
  • It is not a zoonotic virus, meaning the disease cannot spread to humans.

How does it spread?

  • It is a contagious vector-borne disease spread by vectors like mosquitoes, some biting flies, and ticks and usually affects host animals like cows and water buffaloes.
  • According to the United Nations Food and Agriculture Organisation (FAO), infected animals shed the virus through oral and nasal secretions which may contaminate common feeding and water troughs.
    • Thus, the disease can either spread through direct contact with the vectors or through contaminated fodder and water. Studies have also shown that it can spread through animal semen during artificial insemination.


  • LSD affects the lymph nodes of the infected animal, causing the nodes to enlarge and appear like lumps on the skin, which is where it derives its name from.
  • The cutaneous nodules, 2–5 cm in diameter, appear on the infected cattle’s head, neck, limbs, udder, genitalia, and perineum.
  • The nodules may later turn into ulcers and eventually develop scabs over the skin.
  • The other symptoms include high fever, sharp drop in milk yield, discharge from the eyes and nose, salivation, loss of appetite, depression, damaged hides, emaciation (thinness or weakness) of animals, infertility and abortions.
  • The incubation period or the time between infection and symptoms is about 28 days according to the FAO, and 4 to 14 days according to some other estimates.
  • The morbidity of the disease varies between two to 45% and mortality or rate of date is less than 10%, however, the reported mortality of the current outbreak in India is up to 15%, particularly in cases being reported in the western part (Rajasthan) of the country.

What is the geographical distribution and how did it spread to India?

  • The disease was first observed in Zambia in 1929, subsequently spreading to most African countries extensively, followed by West Asia, Southeastern Europe, and Central Asia, and more recently spreading to South Asia and China in 2019.
  • As per the FAO, the LSD disease is currently endemic in several countries across Africa, parts of the West Asia (Iraq, Saudi Arabia, Syrian Arab Republic), and Turkey.
  • The spread in South Asia first affected Bangladesh in July 2019 and then reached India in August that year, with initial cases being detected in Odisha and West Bengal.
Is it safe to consume the milk of affected cattle?
  • Studies say that it has not been possible to ascertain the presence of viable and infectious LSDV virus in milk derived from the infected animal.
    • However, that a large portion of the milk in Asia is processed after collection and is either pasteurised or boiled or dried in order to make milk powder.
    • This process ensures that the virus is inactivated or destroyed.

What are the economic implications?

  • The spread of the disease can lead to “substantial” and “severe” economic losses.
  • The disease leads to reduced milk production as the animal becomes weak and also loses appetite due to mouth ulceration.
  • The income losses can also be due to poor growth, reduced draught power capacity and reproductive problems associated with abortions, infertility and lack of semen for artificial insemination.
  • Movement and trade bans after infection also put an economic strain on the whole value chain.
  • A risk assessment study conducted by the FAO based on information available from 2019 to October 2020 revealed that the economic impact of LSD for South, East and Southeast Asian countries “was estimated to be up to $1.45 billion in direct losses of livestock and production”.

India’s Scenario:

  • The current outbreak in India has emerged as a challenge for the dairy sector.
  • India is the world’s largest milk producer at about 210 million tonnes annually.
  • India also has the largest headcount of cattle and buffalo worldwide.
  • In Rajasthan, which is witnessing the worst impact of LSD , it has led to reduced milk production, which lessened by about three to six lakh litres a day.
  • Reports indicate that milk production has also gone down in Punjab owing to the spread of the disease.
  • According to FAO, the disease threatens the livelihoods of smaller poultry farmers significantly.
  • Notably, farmers in Uttar Pradesh and Punjab have incurred losses due to cattle deaths and are seeking compensation from their State governments.

-Source: The Hindu



Recently, a team of researchers at the Center for Data Driven Discovery, California Institute of Technology has developed ZARTH app that allows anyone with a smartphone to ‘hunt’ for transients.


GS III: Science and Technology

Dimensions of the Article:

  1. ZARTH App: Augmented Reality Transient Hunter
  2. Transient Phenomenon

ZARTH App: Augmented Reality Transient Hunter

  • The ZARTH app is an augmented reality mobile game designed for serious science engagement.
  • Uses the open-source Sky Map and daily data from the Zwicky Transient Facility (ZTF) telescope at Palomar Observatory.
  • ZTF scans the northern sky every two days, providing valuable data for tracking near-earth asteroids and studying supernovae.
  • Daily updates of real-time transients detected by ZTF, including flaring stars, white dwarf binaries, and more.
  • Transients ranked by rarity and importance, allowing players to compete, score points, and earn credits on leaderboards.
Transient Phenomenon:
  • Transients are astronomical events lasting from fractions of a second to weeks or years.
  • These events are typically short-lived and associated with the destruction of astrophysical objects.

-Source: The Hindu

April 2024