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Current Affairs 04 October 2023


  1. Mahatma Gandhi’s 154th Birth Anniversary
  2. Unlawful Activities (Prevention) Act, 1967 (UAPA)
  3. Nobel Prize in Physics 2023
  4. Supreme Court Expresses Concern Over Loss of Fresh Judicial Talent
  5. Cookies in the Digital Landscape
  6. Counting Deaths in India’s Prisons
  7. Seamount

 Mahatma Gandhi’s 154th Birth Anniversary


On October 2, 2023, India celebrated Mahatma Gandhi’s 154th birth anniversary, honoring his enduring principles and ideals that continue to inspire the nation.


GS I: History

Dimensions of the Article:

  1. Mahatma Gandhi: A Brief Overview
  2. Inclusion of Mahatma Gandhi on Indian Legal Banknotes
  3. Mahatma Gandhi’s Lessons on Sustainability
  4. Relationship of Mahatma Gandhi’s Idea of Politics with Music

Mahatma Gandhi: A Brief Overview

Early Life and Education:

  • Born on October 2, 1869, in Porbandar, India.
  • Studied law in England.

Champion of Nonviolent Resistance:

  • Pioneered the concept of nonviolent civil disobedience.
  • Led numerous successful campaigns against British colonial rule, including the Salt March and Quit India Movement.

Father of the Nation:

  • His leadership in India’s struggle for independence earned him the title “Father of the Nation.”
  • Instrumental in shaping the Indian National Congress.

Advocate for Social Change:

  • Fought against discrimination, untouchability, and promoted social equality.
  • Embraced simplicity and promoted self-sufficiency.

Global Influence:

  • Mahatma Gandhi’s philosophy of nonviolence inspired civil rights movements worldwide.
  • Influential figures like Martin Luther King Jr. were inspired by his teachings.

Assassination and Legacy:

  • Assassinated on January 30, 1948.
  • His legacy of peace, nonviolence, and social justice continues to inspire generations globally.

Commemoration highlights:

  • His Indispensable Role in the Freedom Struggle: Mahatma Gandhi’s pivotal role in India’s freedom struggle remains paramount in the country’s history.
  • Epithet “Father of the Nation”: His significant contributions earned him the title “Father of the Nation,” a distinction reflected in his portrait on Indian legal banknotes.
  • A Multi-Faceted Personality: Beyond his political leadership, Mahatma Gandhi was a multi-faceted individual with interests in music and a strong commitment to environmental preservation.

Inclusion of Mahatma Gandhi on Indian Legal Banknotes

Selection of the Photograph:

  • Gandhi’s portrait on banknotes is a cut-out from a 1946 photograph with Lord Pethick-Lawrence.
  • The image was chosen for Gandhi’s warm smile, making it ideal for the portrait.

Legislation and Approval:

  • RBI Act, 1934 (Section 25) empowers the central government to approve banknote designs.
  • Central Board recommendations are considered for design approval.

First Appearance in 1969:

  • Gandhi’s image appeared on Indian currency in 1969, commemorating his 100th birth anniversary.

1987 and Beyond:

  • In October 1987, Rs 500 notes featuring Gandhi were introduced.
  • Gandhi’s wide national appeal led to the launch of the ‘Mahatma Gandhi Series’ in 1996.
  • Enhanced security features, such as a windowed security thread, were introduced for these banknotes.

Mahatma Gandhi’s Lessons on Sustainability

Simple and Minimalist Lifestyle:

  • Gandhi advocated living with the bare minimum and avoiding excessive consumption.
  • “Sarvodaya” concept promotes resource conservation and reduced ecological footprint.

Self-Sufficiency at the Community Level:

  • Promoted the idea of self-reliant villages for basic needs like food and clothing.
  • Reduces dependence on external resources and minimizes environmental impacts.

Nonviolence and Ethical Treatment:

  • Extended principle of nonviolence to all living beings, including animals.
  • Advocated ethical treatment of animals and practiced vegetarianism.

Sustainable Farming Practices:

  • Supported organic farming, natural fertilizers, and crop rotation to preserve soil fertility.
  • Promoted traditional farming methods reducing reliance on chemicals.

Responsible Resource Use:

  • Emphasized responsible use and conservation of natural resources like water and forests.
  • Advocated for environment protection and regeneration for future generations.

Decentralization of Power:

  • Believed in devolving authority to local communities for better environmental management.
  • Empowered local decision-making in sustainability matters.

Swadeshi Movement:

  • Encouraged use of locally produced goods to reduce ecological impact of long-distance trade.
  • Promoted local economies and sustainable consumption.

Respect for Nature:

  • Advocated deep respect and reverence for nature.
  • Stressed responsible stewardship of the environment.

Vasudev Kutumbakam:

  • Believed in the unity of the world and the importance of global consciousness.
  • Encouraged awareness of global issues and shared responsibility.

Relationship of Mahatma Gandhi’s Idea of Politics with Music

  • Spiritual Connection: Gandhi used devotional music, like bhajans, to connect with his inner self and find solace, emphasizing the purification of the mind through song.
  • Unity and Inspiration: He encouraged inspirational and patriotic songs to unite people in the struggle for independence, with favorites like “Raghupati Raghava Raja Ram” and “Vaishnav Jan To.”
  • Communication: During periods of fasting and silence, he used music to convey thoughts and feelings when verbal communication was restricted.
  • Community Unity: Music played a vital role in uniting communities during nonviolent movements, fostering solidarity among participants, as seen in the Salt March.
  • Preservation of Culture: Gandhi promoted folk music and local languages to connect with the masses, aligning with his advocacy for traditional Indian culture.
  • Mobilization and Upliftment: Music inspired and mobilized people during nonviolent resistance movements, creating a sense of collective identity and boosting morale.
  • Simplicity and Accessibility: Gandhi preferred simple and melodious tunes, making music easily understood and appreciated by the common people.
  • Use of Music in Politics: Music was an integral part of Gandhi’s political strategy, reinforcing his principles of nonviolence, unity, and cultural preservation.

-Source: Indian Express

Unlawful Activities (Prevention) Act, 1967 (UAPA)


Delhi Police has arrested NewsClick founder and its editor-in-chief Prabir Purkayastha and Amit Chakravarty, firm’s human resources head, under the Unlawful Activities (Prevention) Act. This was done after the allegations that the portal received funds for pro-China propaganda.


 GS III- Security Challenges

Dimensions of the Article:

  1. The Unlawful Activities (Prevention) Act (UAPA), 1967
  2. Unlawful Activities Prevention Amendment Bill, 2019
  3. Some Concerning Points about the designation of someone as terrorist
  4. Issues with UAPA

The Unlawful Activities (Prevention) Act (UAPA), 1967

  • The Unlawful Activities (Prevention) Act (UAPA) of 1967 is an upgrade on the Terrorist and Disruptive Activities (Prevention) Act TADA (which lapsed in 1995) and the Prevention of Terrorism Act – POTA (which was repealed in 2004).
  • Its main objective was to make powers available for dealing with activities directed against the integrity and sovereignty of India.
  • The National Integration Council appointed a Committee on National Integration and Regionalisation to look into, the aspect of putting reasonable restrictions in the interests of the sovereignty and integrity of India.
  • The agenda of the NIC limited itself to communalism, casteism and regionalism and not terrorism.
  • However, the provisions of the UAPA Act contravenes the requirements of the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights.

Unlawful Activities Prevention Amendment Bill, 2019

  • The original Unlawful Activities Prevention Act, 1967, dealt with “unlawful” acts related to secession; anti-terror provisions were introduced in 2004.
  • It provides special procedures to deal with terrorist activities, among other things.

Key Provisions of the Amendment

  • The Bill amends the Unlawful Activities (Prevention) Act, 1967 (UAPA) and additionally empowers the government to designate individuals as terrorists on the same grounds.
  • Under the Act, the central government may designate an organisation as a terrorist organisation if it:
    • commits or participates in acts of terrorism
    • prepares for terrorism
    • promotes terrorism
    • is otherwise involved in terrorism
  • The word “terror” or “terrorist” is not defined.
  • However, a “terrorist act” is defined as any act committed with the intent –
    • to threaten or likely to threaten the unity, integrity, security, economic security, or sovereignty of India
    • to strike terror or likely to strike terror in the people or any section of the people in India or in any foreign country
  • The central government may designate an individual as a terrorist through a notification in the official gazette.
  • The Bill empowers the officers of the National Investigation Agency (NIA), of the rank of Inspector or above, to investigate cases.
  • Under the Act, an investigating officer can seize properties that may be connected with terrorism with prior approval of the Director General of Police.

Some Concerning Points about the designation of someone as terrorist

  • The government is NOT required to give an individual an opportunity to be heard before such a designation.
  • At present, legally, a person is presumed to be innocent until proven guilty.
  • In this line, an individual who is convicted in a terror case is legally referred to as a ‘terrorist’.
  • And those suspected of being involved in terrorist activities are referred to as ‘terror accused’.
  • The Bill does NOT clarify the standard of proof required to establish that an individual is involved or is likely to be involved in terrorist activities.
  • The Bill also does not require the filing of cases or arresting individuals while designating them as terrorists.
Issues with UAPA
  • UAPA gives the state authority vague powers to detain and arrest individuals who it believes to be indulged in terrorist activities. Thus, the state gives itself more powers vis-a-vis individual liberty guaranteed under Article 21 of the Constitution.
  • UAPA empowers the ruling government, under the garb of curbing terrorism, to impose indirect restriction on right of dissent which is detrimental for a developing democratic society. The right of dissent is a part and parcel of fundamental right to free speech and expression and therefore, cannot be abridged in any circumstances except for mentioned in Article 19 (2).
  • UAPA can also be thought of to go against the federal structure since it neglects the authority of state police in terrorism cases, given that ‘Police’ is a state subject under 7th schedule of Indian Constitution.
How can the names be removed?
  • Application – The Bill seeks to give the central government the power to remove a name from the schedule when an individual makes an application.
  • The procedure for such an application and the process of decision-making will also be decided by the central government.
  • If an application filed is rejected by the government, the Bill gives the person the right to seek a review within one month of rejection.
  • Review committee – Under the amendment Bill, the central government will set up a review committee.
  • It will consist of a chairperson (a retired or sitting judge of a High Court) and 3 other members.
  • It will be empowered to order the government to delete the name of an individual from the schedule that lists “terrorists”, if it considers the order to be flawed.
  • Apart from these two avenues, the individual can also move the courts challenging the government’s order.

-Source: The Hindu

Nobel Prize in Physics 2023


The Nobel Prize in Physics for 2023 has gone to three scientists – Anne L’Huillier, Pierre Agostini, and Ferenc Krausz. The work of these scientists made it easier to observe electrons and has potential applications in the field of diagnosing diseases and developing electronic gadgets.


GS III: Science and Technology

Dimensions of the Article:

  1. Nobel Prize in Physics 2023
  2. Capturing the Unobservable Electron World
  3. A Peek into Attosecond Physics
  4. Significance of Their Work

Nobel Prize in Physics 2023

Winners of the Nobel Prize in Physics for 2023

  • Anne L’Huillier, Pierre Agostini, and Ferenc Krausz

Revolutionizing Electron Exploration

  • Anne L’Huillier, Pierre Agostini, and Ferenc Krausz have been awarded the Nobel Prize in Physics for 2023.
  • Their groundbreaking work has provided humanity with innovative tools to delve into the realm of electrons within atoms and molecules.

Capturing the Unobservable Electron World

Unveiling the Challenge
  • Electrons, the tiny particles orbiting atomic nuclei, move at astonishing speeds, making real-time observation impossible.
  • Human perception blurs rapid movements, rendering extremely short events imperceptible.
  • Scientific measurements must occur faster than the time it takes for studied systems to undergo noticeable changes to yield meaningful results.
The Revolutionary Breakthrough
  • These three scientists devised a method to generate light pulses lasting only attoseconds, equivalent to 1×10^-18 of a second.
  • Their groundbreaking achievement enables the measurement of lightning-fast electron movements and energy changes.
  • Expanding Our Understanding
  • By producing these ultra-short light pulses, Anne L’Huillier, Pierre Agostini, and Ferenc Krausz have opened up new avenues for investigating the swift and intricate world of electrons inside atoms and molecules.

A Peek into Attosecond Physics

Incredibly Swift Atomic Scales
  • At the atomic level, natural time scales are remarkably brief. Within molecules, atoms can rotate and move within femtoseconds (10^-15 seconds).
  • However, when electrons traverse atoms or molecules, their movements are so rapid that even femtoseconds cannot capture their changes.
The Realm of Attoseconds
  • Within the electron domain, positions and energies alter within the span of one to a few hundred attoseconds.
  • An attosecond is an astonishing one billionth of a billionth of a second.
  • The number of attoseconds in one second equals the number of seconds since the universe’s inception 13.8 billion years ago.
Grasping Attoseconds
  • To put attoseconds in perspective, envision a flash of light traveling from one end of a room to the opposite wall; this takes ten billion attoseconds.
  • Until now, scientific observations were limited to processes lasting femtoseconds.
Opening New Horizons
  • This year’s Nobel laureates conducted experiments that pioneered the field of attosecond physics.
  • Their work demonstrated the observation and measurement of attosecond pulses.

How They Achieved It

L’Huillier’s Insight

  • Anne L’Huillier found that when laser light passed through noble gases, it interacted with atoms, imparting extra energy to certain electrons, which was then emitted as light.

Agostini’s Achievement

  • Pierre Agostini succeeded in generating and examining a series of consecutive light pulses, each lasting just 250 attoseconds.

Krausz’s Contribution

  • Ferenc Krausz developed an experiment isolating a single light pulse lasting 650 attoseconds.
  • These flashes of light enabled imaging of processes within atoms.

Significance of Their Work

Unlocking Electron Mechanisms

  • Attosecond physics offers insight into electron-governed mechanisms, paving the way for practical applications.

Potential Medical Applications

  • Attosecond physics could be used to study molecular changes in blood for disease identification.

Advancements in Electronics

  • Understanding electron movements and energy transmission may lead to the development of more efficient electronic devices.

-Source: Indian Express

Supreme Court Expresses Concern Over Loss of Fresh Judicial Talent


The Supreme Court of India has expressed concern over the loss of fresh talent in the judiciary due to prolonged government inaction in processing High Court Collegium recommendations. The Attorney General of India has been directed to provide updates on pending judicial appointments and transfers until October 9, 2023.


GS II: Polity and Governance

Dimensions of the Article:

  1. Supreme Court’s Concerns Regarding Judicial Appointments
  2. Judicial Appointments in India
  3. Way Forward for Judicial Appointments in India

Supreme Court’s Concerns Regarding Judicial Appointments

Backlog of Recommendations

  • The Supreme Court is alarmed by the substantial backlog of 70 High Court Collegium recommendations awaiting government action for over a year.
  • Prolonged delays have resulted in a loss of promising legal talent as potential candidates withdraw their applications due to government inaction.

Talent Drain

  • The Judiciary is witnessing a talent drain as bright legal minds, eager to join the Bench, withdraw due to uncertainty stemming from these delays.
  • The government’s practice of segregating names from Collegium-recommended lists is particularly troubling.

Segregation Controversy

  • Despite explicit opposition from the Collegium, the government persists in segregating names, causing friction and non-compliance with Collegium directives.
  • This controversial practice has driven candidates to withdraw their nominations.

Vacant Judicial Positions

  • The extensive backlog of High Court Collegium recommendations has resulted in numerous vacant judicial positions nationwide.
  • The Memorandum of Procedure mandates prompt appointments of names reiterated by the Collegium, but this process is not being adhered to, leading to further delays.

Pending Chief Justice Appointment

  • The appointment of a Chief Justice for the Manipur High Court remains unresolved, creating uncertainty.
  • Transfers and Lack of Response
  • The government has not responded to 26 transfers recommended by the Supreme Court Collegium, further adding to the backlog and uncertainty in the Judiciary.

Judicial Appointments in India

Chief Justice of India (CJI)

  • The President of India appoints the CJI and other Supreme Court (SC) judges.
  • The outgoing CJI typically recommends the successor, and seniority has been the guiding principle since the 1970s supersession controversy.

Supreme Court Judges

  • SC Judges are appointed by the President in consultation with the CJI and other SC and High Court judges as deemed necessary.
  • The Collegium, consisting of the CJI and the four most senior SC judges, recommends candidates for SC judgeships to the President.

Chief Justice of High Courts (HC) and HC Judges

  • The President appoints the Chief Justice of an HC after consulting with the CJI and the respective state’s governor.
  • HC judges are appointed by the President based on recommendations from a Collegium composed of the CJI, two senior-most judges, and the chief justice of the concerned HC.
  • The Chief Justice of the HC must also consult with the two senior-most puisne Judges before making recommendations for HC judgeships.

Way Forward for Judicial Appointments in India

Expedite Processing:

  • The government should prioritize the prompt processing of pending High Court Collegium recommendations to address the backlog of appointments and fill vacant judicial positions without delay.

End Name Segregation:

  • The practice of segregating names from the Collegium’s recommendations must be discontinued, and the government should strictly adhere to the Collegium’s directions when appointing judges.

Transparent Tracking System:

  • Implement a transparent system to monitor and report on the progress of judicial appointments and transfers.
  • Hold those responsible for undue delays or non-compliance with established procedures accountable for their actions.

-Source: The Hindu

Cookies in the Digital Landscape


Cookies in the digital landscape play a dual role, offering personalization and convenience while raising concerns about user privacy and data security.


GS III: Science and Technology

Dimensions of the Article:

  1. About Cookies
  2. Associated Challenges
  3. Navigating the Future of Cookies: Striking a Balance Between Personalization and Privacy

About Cookies

Cookies are small data pieces stored on a user’s device, typically as text files, by websites they visit. These files retain information about the user’s online interactions and preferences.

Categories of Cookies
  • Session Cookies: Temporary notes that exist only during active browsing sessions.
  • Persistent Cookies: Digital bookmarks that persist on the user’s device after the browsing session, storing information like login details and language preferences.
  • Secure Cookies: These are transmitted over encrypted connections and prioritize safeguarding sensitive data, like login credentials.
  • Third-party Cookies: Originating from different domains, they are often used for tracking and advertising purposes.
Roles Played by Cookies
  • Cookies serve as digital identity cards, helping websites recognize and maintain user login status.
  • They retain user preferences, such as language settings and website themes.
  • Cookies ensure that items in online shopping carts remain accessible across visits.
  • They assist website owners in gathering valuable user interaction data, facilitating improvements and personalized content delivery.
  • Advertisers use cookies to display ads aligned with user interests and browsing history, enhancing the appeal of online shopping.

Associated Challenges

  • Cookies can track user online behavior, raising concerns about potential privacy breaches.
  • Inadequately secured cookies can become cyber vulnerabilities exploited by hackers to access and steal personal information.
  • Through Cross-Site Request Forgery (CSRF), attackers can misuse cookies to perform unauthorized actions on a user’s behalf without consent.
  • Accumulating cookies on a device over time can consume storage space and potentially slow down web browsing.
  • Frequent consent requests for cookie usage can be annoying and disrupt the user’s browsing experience, requiring repeated interactions with these pop-up dialogs.

Navigating the Future of Cookies: Striking a Balance Between Personalization and Privacy

Empowering Users
  • Customized Cookie Preferences: Users should have the option to tailor their cookie preferences, enabling them to selectively opt in or out of specific cookie categories.
  • Personalized Privacy Dashboards: Websites should provide users with user-friendly privacy dashboards, in compliance with India’s Digital Personal Data Protection Act 2023. These dashboards should offer insights into data usage, active cookies, and associated benefits.
  • Consent Expiration Control: Users should be granted the ability to set the duration of their cookie consent, allowing them greater control over the storage and utilization of their data.
Raising User Awareness
  • Informative Resources: Websites must offer clear and easily accessible information regarding cookies. Users should be educated about the significance of cookies in enhancing website functionality and performance.

-Source: The Hindu

Counting Deaths in India’s Prisons


Recently, the Supreme Court Committee on Prison Reforms found suicide to be the leading cause of ‘unnatural’ deaths — deaths other than ageing or illnesses — among Indian prisoners.


GS I: Society

Dimensions of the Article:

  1. Categorizing Prison Deaths in India
  2. Investigation of Prison Deaths in India
  3. Government Initiatives and Recommendations for Prison Reforms in India

Categorizing Prison Deaths in India

  • Prison deaths in India are categorized as either ‘natural’ or ‘unnatural’ in the annual Prison Statistics India report, published by the National Crime Records Bureau (NCRB).
  • Statistics (2021)
  • In 2021, a total of 2,116 prisoners passed away while in judicial custody, with nearly 90% of these cases classified as natural deaths.
  • Uttar Pradesh (U.P.) recorded the highest number of overall prison deaths, with 481 inmates succumbing in 2021.
Natural Deaths
  • ‘Natural’ deaths typically result from aging and illnesses. The category of illness includes various diseases like heart conditions, HIV, tuberculosis, cancer, and more.
  • As the prison population has grown, the recorded instances of natural deaths have risen from 1,424 in 2016 to 1,879 in 2021.
Unnatural Deaths
  • ‘Unnatural’ deaths encompass a broader range of classifications, including:
    • Suicide (by hanging, poisoning, self-inflicted injury, drug overdose, electrocution, etc.)
    • Inmate-on-inmate deaths
    • Deaths caused by assaults from external individuals
    • Deaths resulting from firing incidents
    • Deaths due to negligence or excesses
    • Accidental deaths (caused by natural disasters like earthquakes, snakebites, drowning, accidental falls, burn injuries, drug/alcohol consumption, etc.)
  • The suicide rate among inmates was found to be more than twice that of the general population.

Investigation of Prison Deaths in India

Mandatory Reporting

  • Since 1993, the National Crime Records Bureau (NCRB) is required to report a custodial death within 24 hours.
  • This report is followed by the submission of post-mortem reports, magisterial inquest reports, or videography reports of the post-mortem examination.

Special Procedures for Custodial Rape and Death

  • In cases of custodial rape and death, the Code of Criminal Procedure mandates a compulsory judicial magisterial inquiry instead of an executive magistrate inquiry.
Supreme Court’s Role
  • The Supreme Court, in the case of R. D. Upadhyay v State of Andhra Pradesh (1996), highlighted the social obligation towards the health of prisoners.
  • It acknowledged that prisoners face a “double handicap”:
    • Limited Access to Medical Expertise: Prisoners do not enjoy the same access to medical expertise as free citizens. Their incarceration restricts access to physicians of their choice, second opinions, and specialist consultations.
    • Exposure to Health Hazards: Inmates are exposed to more health hazards compared to free citizens due to the conditions of their confinement.

Government Initiatives and Recommendations for Prison Reforms in India

Initiatives and Reforms by the Government:

Model Prison Manual 2016 and Mental Healthcare Act 2017:

  • Outline inmates’ right to healthcare, including investment in healthcare facilities and mental health units.
  • Training officers to provide basic and emergency care.
  • Formulating suicide prevention programs.

National Human Rights Commission (NHRC) Advisory:

  • In June, NHRC issued a comprehensive advisory highlighting the link between suicides and medical and mental health issues.
  • Recommended filling positions of “Prison Welfare Officers, Probation Officers, Psychologists, and Medical Staff.”
  • Suggested preventive measures such as strict checks on potential tools for suicide, mental health screening at entry, and CCTV monitoring of high-risk inmates.
Recommendations by the Justice Amitava Roy Committee:

Reducing Violence Among Prisoners:

  • Mandatory segregation of undertrials, convicts, and first-time offenders during court appearances and hospital visits.
  • Comprehensive implementation of national and state health insurance schemes.
  • Establishment of a grievance redressal mechanism for prisoners.

Speedy Trials:

  • Creation of special fast-track courts for petty offenses and cases pending for over five years.
  • District and sessions judges tasked with monitoring cases where accused have been in custody for extended periods.

Use of Video Conferencing:

  • Promotion of video conferencing for producing senior citizens and sick prisoners in courts.

Prevention of Suicide:

  • Recommendations for suicide-proof barracks with collapsible material.
  • Regular training for jail staff to recognize signs of depression and aberrant behavior among inmates.

-Source: The Hindu



Recently, two Indian scientists from the National Institute of Oceanography (NIO) and their team have discovered an active submarine volcano (Crater Seamount) in the Andaman Sea.


GS I: Geography

Dimensions of the Article:

  1. About Seamounts
  2. Key Facts About Andaman Sea

About Seamounts:

  • Formation: Seamounts are underwater mountains created by volcanic activity. They can be active, extinct, or dormant volcanoes.
  • Formation Process: They typically form near mid-ocean ridges, where tectonic plates are moving apart, allowing molten rock to rise and solidify on the seafloor. Some also occur near intraplate hotspots and oceanic island chains with volcanic activity.
  • Notable Mid-Ocean Ridges: The Mid-Atlantic Ridge and the East Pacific Rise are among the planet’s most-studied mid-ocean ridges.
  • Significance: Seamounts provide insights into mantle composition and plate evolution. They also impact ocean circulation, heat absorption, and carbon dioxide absorption. Seamounts can support diverse marine life due to their ability to cause local ocean upwelling, bringing nutrient-rich water to the surface.

Key Facts About Andaman Sea:

  • Location: The Andaman Sea is a marginal sea situated in the northeastern Indian Ocean.
  • Boundaries:
    • North: It is bounded by the Irrawaddy River delta of Myanmar (Burma).
    • East: It is bordered by the peninsular regions of Myanmar, Thailand, and Malaysia.
    • South: The southern boundary includes the Indonesian island of Sumatra and the Strait of Malacca.
    • West: The western boundary is formed by the Andaman and Nicobar Islands, which are a union territory of India.

-Source: The Hindu

December 2023