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Current Affairs 05 June 2023


  1. Govt. Bans 14 Fixed Dose Combination (FDC)
  2. World’s largest grain storage plan in the Cooperative Sector
  3. Appointment of Vice-Chancellors
  4. Adverse possession
  5. Kavach System
  6. Suez Canal
  7. GAGAN satellite technology
  8. Petroleum Coke (Pet Coke)

Govt. Bans 14 Fixed Dose Combination (FDC)


The Union Health Ministry has published a gazette notification banning 14 Fixed Dose Combination (FDC) drugs citing lack of therapeutic justification and an expert committee’s recommendation for their prohibition.


GS II: Government policies and Interventions

Dimensions of the Article:

  1. About Fixed Dose Combination (FDC) Drugs
  2. Advantages of FDC Drugs
  3. Challenges of FDC Drugs

About Fixed Dose Combination (FDC) Drugs:

  • Combination products or fixed dose drug combinations (FDCs) consist of two or more active drugs in a single dosage form.
  • The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) in the USA defines a combination product as a product composed of a drug and a device, a biological product and a device, a drug and a biological product, or a drug, device, and a biological product.
  • It is widely accepted that most drugs should be formulated as single compounds.
Acceptability of Fixed Ratio Combination Products
  • Fixed ratio combination products are acceptable only under specific conditions:
    • The dosage of each ingredient meets the requirement of a defined population group.
    • The combination demonstrates a proven advantage over single compounds administered separately in terms of therapeutic effect, safety, or compliance.
Popularity in the Indian Pharmaceutical Market
  • FDCs are highly popular in the Indian pharmaceutical market.
  • They have experienced significant growth in recent years.

Advantages of FDC Drugs:

  • Complementary Mechanism of Action: FDC formulations combine drugs with complementary mechanisms of action, which can enhance the therapeutic effectiveness of the treatment. The combined action of multiple drugs in a single dosage form can target different aspects of a disease or provide a more comprehensive treatment approach.
  • Synergistic Effects: FDCs can exhibit synergistic effects, where the combined action of the drugs produces a greater therapeutic effect compared to individual drugs used alone. This can result in improved efficacy and better treatment outcomes for patients.
  • Better Tolerability: In some cases, combining drugs in an FDC can help reduce side effects or improve tolerability. The interaction between the drugs can minimize adverse reactions, making the treatment more manageable for patients.
  • Elongated Product Life-Cycle Management: FDC formulations can extend the life cycle of a product by combining drugs that have already been individually approved. This allows pharmaceutical companies to innovate and offer new treatment options without going through the lengthy process of developing and gaining approval for completely new drugs.
  • Cost Savings: FDCs can lead to cost savings for both patients and healthcare systems. By combining multiple drugs into a single formulation, the overall cost of treatment may be reduced. This can make the medication more affordable and accessible, particularly in resource-constrained settings.
  • Minimized Pill-Burden: Using FDCs reduces the number of pills a patient needs to take. This can simplify treatment regimens and improve patient adherence to medication schedules, especially for individuals who need to take multiple drugs regularly.

Challenges of FDC Drugs:

  • Increased Chances of Adverse Drug Effects and Interactions: FDC drugs have a higher likelihood of causing adverse drug effects and drug interactions compared to individual drugs given separately.
  • Irrational FDCs: Unfortunately, in many cases, FDCs introduced in India and possibly in other regions are deemed irrational. This means that the combinations may lack scientific justification or evidence of their efficacy and safety. The use of such irrational FDCs can pose significant risks to patients.
  • Risk of Adverse Drug Reactions: The use of irrational FDCs exposes patients to unnecessary risks of adverse drug reactions. Since the combinations may not have undergone rigorous testing or may lack sufficient clinical data, patients may be subjected to potential harm without clear benefits.
  • Financial Burden: Irrational FDCs impose an unnecessary financial burden on consumers. Patients may end up paying for combination products that provide no additional therapeutic value compared to individual drugs. This can lead to increased healthcare costs and limited access to essential medications.
  • Legal Controversy: Medical practitioners who prescribe or endorse irrational FDCs may face controversy and legal challenges, particularly when patients experience adverse effects or unsatisfactory outcomes. In consumer forums and litigation, the use of such combinations may be questioned due to their absence from standard references and reputable medical journals.
  • Promotional Practices: Pharmaceutical manufacturers may continue to promote and market FDCs, regardless of their rationality, to benefit from high sales. This can perpetuate the use of unnecessary combinations and hinder the adoption of evidence-based treatment approaches.

-Source: The Hindu

World’s Largest Grain Storage Plan in the Cooperative Sector


The Union Cabinet has given its approval for the establishment of the “world’s largest grain storage plan in the cooperative sector” with an outlay of around Rs 1 lakh crore.


GS III: Indian Economy

Dimensions of the Article:

  1. Major Highlights Related to Grain Storage Plan
  2. Benefits of the Grain Storage Plan
  3. About primary agricultural credit societies

Major Highlights Related to Grain Storage Plan:


  • The grain storage plan aims to achieve several goals, including curbing crop damages, preventing distress sales by farmers, and bolstering the country’s food security.

Focus on Agricultural Infrastructure:

  • The plan emphasizes the creation of godowns (warehouses) and other agricultural infrastructure at the level of Primary Agricultural Credit Societies (PACS).
  • This infrastructure will strengthen food security, reduce wastage, and empower farmers.

Convergence of Schemes:

  • The initiative aims to converge eight ongoing schemes of three ministries to address the shortage of agricultural storage infrastructure in India.
  • By coordinating and integrating these schemes, the plan seeks to optimize their impact and effectiveness.

Pilot Project:

  • The Ministry of Cooperation will implement a pilot project in at least 10 selected districts to test and refine the grain storage plan’s implementation strategies and assess its outcomes.

Inter-Ministerial Committee:

  • An Inter-Ministerial Committee (IMC) will be formed to oversee the implementation of the grain storage plan.
  • The committee will be chaired by the Minister of Cooperation and will include the Ministers of Agriculture and Farmers Welfare, Consumer Affairs, Food and Public Distribution, and Food Processing Industries, along with relevant secretaries.

Strengthening Cooperatives:

  • The Ministry of Cooperation has developed the grain storage plan to leverage the strength of cooperatives and transform them into successful business enterprises.
  • This aligns with the vision of “Sahakar-se-Samriddhi” (Cooperation for Prosperity).

Agri-infrastructure at PACS Level:

  • The plan focuses on establishing agri-infrastructure, including warehouses, custom hiring centers, and processing units, at the level of Primary Agricultural Credit Societies (PACS).
  • This decentralized approach aims to enhance the economic viability of PACS and contribute to the growth of the Indian agricultural sector.

Significance of PACS:

  • With over 1,00,000 PACS and a membership base of more than 13 crore farmers, PACS play a significant role in the agricultural and rural landscape.
  • The grain storage plan seeks to empower PACS by providing them with storage capacity and other necessary infrastructure, enabling them to contribute effectively to the agricultural sector’s development.
  • By addressing the storage infrastructure challenges and empowering cooperatives, the grain storage plan aims to enhance food security, minimize crop wastage, and improve the economic conditions of farmers in India.

Benefits of the Grain Storage Plan:

  • Alleviation of Storage Infrastructure Shortage: The plan aims to establish godowns at the level of Primary Agricultural Credit Societies (PACS), addressing the shortage of agricultural storage infrastructure in the country. This will provide farmers with local storage facilities for their produce.
  • Empowerment of PACS: The plan empowers PACS to undertake various activities, such as functioning as procurement centers for state agencies or the Food Corporation of India (FCI), serving as fair price shops, and setting up custom hiring centers and common processing units. This diversification of activities will enhance the incomes of farmer members and contribute to their economic well-being.
  • Reduction in Grain Wastage: The establishment of decentralized storage capacity at the PACS level will help reduce grain wastage. By providing local storage facilities, the plan aims to minimize losses caused by improper storage and transportation, thus improving overall food security.
  • Prevention of Distress Sales: The plan provides farmers with various options for storing their crops, preventing distress sales. With access to storage facilities, farmers can wait for better prices in the market, leading to improved income realization and financial stability.
  • Better Prices for Produce: The availability of storage facilities at the PACS level enables farmers to store their produce and sell it at a more opportune time, when prices are favorable. This allows farmers to negotiate better prices for their crops and improves their overall profitability.
  • Cost Reduction in Transportation: The establishment of storage facilities at the PACS level significantly reduces transportation costs of food grains to procurement centers and fair price shops. With localized storage, farmers and cooperatives can save on transportation expenses, making the supply chain more efficient and cost-effective.

About primary agricultural credit societies:

  • PACS is the smallest cooperative credit institution in India and a basic unit.
  • The initial Primary Agricultural Credit Society (PACS) was founded in 1904.
  • It has a grassroots effect (gram panchayat and village level).
  • PACS serves as the last point of contact between the primary borrowers, or rural residents, and the higher agencies, such as the Central Cooperative Bank, State Cooperative Bank, and Reserve Bank of India.
  • PACS are governed by the RBI and registered under the Co-operative Societies Act.
  • The “Banking Regulation Act-1949” and the “Banking Laws (Co-operative societies) Act 1965” are in charge of them.
Objectives of PACS
  • To raise capital for the purpose of making loans and supporting members’ essential activities.
  • To collect deposits from members with the goal of improving their savings habit.
  • To supply agricultural inputs and services to members at reasonable prices,
  • To arrange for the supply and development of improved breeds of livestock for members.
  • To make all necessary arrangements for improving irrigation on land owned by members.
  • To encourage various income-generating activities through supply of necessary inputs and services.
Functions of PACS
  • PACS typically offer the following services to their members:
    • Input facilities in the form of a monetary or in-kind component
    • Agriculture implements for hire
    • Storage space

-Source: The Hindu, Indian Express

Appointment of Vice-Chancellors


A tussle between the Chief Minister of West Bengal and Governor came to the fore over the appointment of 10 senior professors as interim Vice-Chancellors (VC) of state-run universities.


GS II: Polity and Governance

Dimensions of the Article:

  1. Role of Governor (Chancellor) in State Universities
  2. Role of President (Visitor) in Central Universities
  3. Hierarchy of Laws
  4. What is the Role of Vice-Chancellor

Role of Governor (Chancellor) in State Universities:

  • Ex-officio Chancellor: The Governor of the state serves as the ex-officio chancellor of the universities in that state.
  • Independent Decision-making: While functioning as the Chancellor, the Governor acts independently of the Council of Ministers and takes decisions on all university matters. In this role, the Governor has the authority to make decisions related to appointments, administration, and overall functioning of the universities.
  • Appointment of Vice Chancellor: The Governor (Chancellor) appoints the Vice Chancellor of the university from a panel of three to five names recommended by the Search cum Selection Committee. The Vice Chancellor is the academic and administrative head of the university.

Role of President (Visitor) in Central Universities:

  • Visitor of Central Universities: The President of India is designated as the Visitor of central universities.
  • Titular Head: The role of the President (Visitor) in central universities is more ceremonial or titular in nature. The President presides over convocations and represents the highest authority in the university.
  • Appointment of Vice Chancellor: The President (Visitor) appoints the Vice Chancellor of the central university from panels of names recommended by search and selection committees formed by the Union government. The Visitor has the power to seek a fresh panel of names if dissatisfied with the initial recommendations.
  • Authority to Inspect and Inquire: The President (Visitor) has the right to authorize inspections of academic and non-academic aspects of the universities and institute inquiries.

Hierarchy of Laws:

  • UGC Regulations vs. State University Act: In case of a conflict between the University Grants Commission (UGC) Regulations and the State University Act, the UGC Regulations prevail to the extent that state legislation is repugnant. This ensures uniformity and adherence to national guidelines.
  • Parliament vs. State Law: According to Article 254(1) of the Indian Constitution, if a provision in a state law is contradictory to a provision made by the Parliament or an existing law regarding any matter in the Concurrent List, the law made by the Parliament takes precedence over the state law.

What is the Role of Vice-Chancellor?

The Vice-Chancellor (VC) holds a significant position in a university and has a range of roles and responsibilities. Here are some key aspects of the Vice-Chancellor’s role:

Principal Academic and Executive Officer:

  • The Vice-Chancellor is considered the principal academic and executive officer of the university.
  • They play a crucial role in overseeing and managing the overall functioning of the university, both in academic and administrative matters.

Bridge between Executive and Academic Wing:

  • The Vice-Chancellor acts as a bridge between the executive/administrative wing and the academic wing of the university.
  • They facilitate communication, coordination, and collaboration between these two areas to ensure effective operations and the achievement of the university’s goals.

Upholding Values and Integrity:

  • The Vice-Chancellor is expected to possess values, personality characteristics, and integrity in addition to academic excellence and administrative experience.
  • They play a pivotal role in upholding the values and ethical standards of the university and promoting a culture of integrity, transparency, and accountability.

Chairing Various Committees:

  • The Vice-Chancellor serves as the ex-officio Chairman of several important committees within the university, including the Court, Executive Council, Academic Council, Finance Committee, and Selection Committees.
  • They provide leadership and guidance in the decision-making processes of these bodies.


  • In the absence of the Chancellor, the Vice-Chancellor presides over convocations of the university where degrees are conferred.
  • They represent the university and confer degrees to graduating students.

Ensuring Compliance:

  • The Vice-Chancellor has the responsibility to ensure that the provisions of the university’s governing documents such as the Act, Statutes, Ordinances, and Regulations are fully observed.
  • They have the necessary power and authority to discharge this duty effectively.

Maintaining Quality and Relevance:

  • The Vice-Chancellor plays a crucial role in maintaining the quality and relevance of the university’s academic programs and research activities.
  • They implement necessary changes and improvements based on recommendations from various committees and commissions, keeping in view the evolving needs and demands of higher education.

-Source: The Hindu

Adverse Possession


The 22nd Law Commission has said in its recent report that there is no justification for introducing any change in the law relating to adverse possession.


GS II: Polity and Governance

Dimensions of the Article:

  1. Adverse Possession
  2. Provisions of the Limitation Act, 1963
  3. Main ingredients of adverse possession are as follows
  4. Why did the SC suggest changes to the law on adverse possession?

Adverse Possession

Concept of Adverse Possession:

  • Adverse possession involves the hostile possession of property that must be continuous, uninterrupted, and peaceful.
  • It promotes the judicious use of land, ensuring it is not left vacant and encouraging productive utilization.

Rationale behind Adverse Possession:

  • According to the Law Commission’s report, adverse possession aims to prevent long-standing doubts over land ownership.
  • It benefits society by allowing someone to make use of idle land left by the owner.
  • It provides protection to individuals who have regarded the occupant as the rightful owner of the property.

Support from Legal Maxim:

  • The legal maxim that the law does not protect those who neglect to enforce their rights supports the concept of adverse possession.
  • If the original title holder fails to assert their rights over the land for a significant period, they cannot reclaim it later.

Historical Basis and Development:

  • Adverse possession can be traced back to 2000 BC, finding its roots in the Hammurabi Code.
  • The historical basis of “title by adverse possession” stems from the development of statutes of limitation in England.
  • The Statute of Westminster in 1275 was the first such statute, but the Property Limitation Act in 1874 set the groundwork for limitations on land recovery actions.
  • The “Act XIV of 1859” attempted to introduce the law of limitation to British India, regulating civil suits.
  • The passage of the Limitation Act in 1963 brought significant changes to the law of adverse possession in India.

Provisions of the Limitation Act, 1963:

Shift in Burden of Proof:

  • The true owner of the land is now only required to prove their title, while the burden of proof of adverse possession falls on the person claiming it.

Time Period for Acquisition of Ownership:

  • Under the 1963 Act, a person in possession of private land for over 12 years or government land for over 30 years can become the owner of that property.
  • Articles 64, 65, 111, or 112 of the 1963 Act pertain to suits for possession of immovable property.

Article 65 – Adverse Possession:

  • According to Article 65, a person in adverse possession of immovable property can acquire title to that property.
  • The possession must be open, continuous, and in defiance of the title of the real owner for a period of twelve years.

Article 64 – Suits Based on Previous Possession:

  • Article 64 governs suits for possession based on previous possession and not on title.

Article 112 – Adverse Possession of Government Property:

  • Article 112 pertains to government property and requires a period of 30 years for granting a title by adverse possession.

Article 111 – Limitation Period for State:

  • Article 111 states that the limitation period for the State is 30 years from the date of dispossession for private land, where any public street or road or any part of it has been dispossessed and no suit has been filed for its possession by or on behalf of any local authority.

Main ingredients of adverse possession are as follows:

  • Date of Possession: The person claiming adverse possession should specify the date on which they came into possession of the property.
  • Nature of Possession: It is important to establish the nature of the possession, such as whether it was exclusive, actual, and physical.
  • Knowledge of Possession: The factum of possession should be known to the owner or the other party. However, for the possession to be considered “open,” it doesn’t necessarily have to be brought to the specific knowledge of the owner, unless an ouster of title is claimed.
  • Duration of Possession: The length of time the adverse possession has continued is a crucial factor. The person must show that they have maintained possession for a statutory period, such as 12 years for private land or 30 years for government land.
  • Open and Undisturbed Possession: Adverse possession must be open, meaning it should be without any attempt at concealment. It does not require the owner’s knowledge but should be visible and apparent. The possession must also be undisturbed, indicating a consistent course of conduct and not a sporadic or occasional act of possession.

Why did the SC suggest changes to the law on adverse possession?

The Supreme Court (SC) suggested changes to the law on adverse possession for the following reasons:

Harshness on True Owners:

  • In the case of Hemaji Waghaji Jat v. Bhikhabhai Khengarbhai Harijan and Others, the SC noted that the existing law of adverse possession is harsh for the true owner of the property.
  • It allows a dishonest person who illegally takes possession of the property to benefit from their illegal actions, creating a windfall for them and placing a premium on dishonesty.

Irrational and Disproportionate:

  • The SC described the law of adverse possession as irrational, illogical, and wholly disproportionate.
  • It ousts an owner based on their inaction within the limitation period, regardless of the circumstances or reasons for their inaction.

Need for Fresh Look:

  • The SC emphasized the urgent need for a fresh look at the law on adverse possession and recommended that the government seriously consider making suitable changes to it.

Commission’s Response:

  • The Ministry of Law and Justice referred the matter to the Law Commission in 2008.
  • The 19th Law Commission prepared a consultation paper and questionnaire and received responses.
  • However, the Commission failed to file a final report on the subject, prompting the present Law Commission to reevaluate the matter.

Dissenting Opinion:

  • Two ex officio members of the Law Commission, legislative secretary Reeta Vasistha and law secretary Niten Chandra, filed a dissent note stating that the law on adverse possession promotes false claims.

-Source: Indian Express

Kavach System


The railways recently confirmed that there was no ‘Kavach’ system installed on the trains involved in the accident in Odisha’s Balasore district.


GS III: Science and Technology

Dimensions of the Article:

  1. Kavach System: An Indigenously Developed Automatic Train Protection (ATP) System
  2. Applications

Kavach System: An Indigenously Developed Automatic Train Protection (ATP) System

  • Developed by the Research Design and Standards Organisation (RDSO) under Indian Railway (IR).
  • Collaboration with Medha Servo Drives Pvt Ltd, HBL Power Systems Ltd, and Kernex Microsystems.
Components and Communication:
  • Consists of electronic devices and Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) devices.
  • Installed in locomotives, signaling systems, and tracks.
  • Communication between devices using ultra-high radio frequencies.
  • Logic programming enables control of train brakes and driver alerts.
Field Tests:
  • Railway conducted field tests for Kavach since 2016.
  • Tests carried out on passenger trains.


  • Assisting locomotive pilots in avoiding Signal Passing At Danger (SPAD) and overspeeding.
  • Alerting loco pilots and automatically applying brakes to halt the train when another train is detected within a set distance.
  • Continuous relay of signals ahead for better visibility in low-visibility conditions.
  • Automatic speed control by applying brakes if the loco pilot fails to do so.
  • Supporting train operations during inclement weather, like dense fog.

-Source: The Hindu

Suez Canal


Recently, a tanker transporting crude oil broke down in a single-lane part of Egypt’s Suez Canal, briefly disrupting traffic in the global waterway.


GS II: International Relations

Dimensions of the Article:

  1. Suez Canal
  2. History
  3. Importance

Suez Canal

  • The Suez Canal is a vital international shipping route that connects Port Said on the Mediterranean Sea to the Indian Ocean through the Egyptian city of Suez on the Red Sea.
  • It allows vessels to travel between Europe and Asia without the need to navigate around the African continent.
Geographical Location:
  • The canal is located in northeastern Egypt, spanning the Isthmus of Suez.
  • It stretches approximately 120 miles (193 kilometers) from Port Said in the north to Suez in the south.
  • It separates the African continent from the Sinai Peninsula.


  • The concept of a canal across the Isthmus of Suez dates back to ancient times, but significant efforts to construct it took place in the 19th century.
  • The canal was opened for international navigation in 1869, with the Universal Suez Ship Canal Company, largely owned by the French and British, overseeing its construction.
  • The canal was under British control until 1956 when Egypt nationalized it during the Suez Crisis.
  • It was reopened for international navigation in 1957 under the management of the Suez Canal Authority.


International Trade:

  • The canal handles a significant portion of global trade, including 12% of world trade, 7% of the world’s oil, and 30% of container ship traffic daily.
  • It provides a direct route between Europe and Asia, reducing fuel costs and transportation expenses, thereby facilitating cheaper international trade.

Energy Security:

  • Due to its strategic location, the canal plays a crucial role in transporting crude oil and other hydrocarbons from countries like Saudi Arabia to Europe and North America.

Egypt’s Economy:

  • The canal contributes about 2% to Egypt’s GDP, making it a significant source of revenue.
  • In 2022, the revenue from the canal reached $8 billion, indicating its economic importance for Egypt.

India’s Trade and Energy Security:

  • The Suez Canal is a major route for Indian trade worth $200 billion to/from North America, South America, and Europe.
  • It facilitates the import and export of ethane with the US and crude imports from Latin America, playing a crucial role in India’s energy security.
  • It enables the Indian Navy to project its presence in the region and participate in global naval operations, highlighting its strategic significance for India.

-Source: The Hindu

GAGAN Satellite Technology


Recently, the Prime Minister of India lauded Asia’s first demonstration of Performance-Based Navigation for helicopters for a flight from Juhu to Pune using GAGAN satellite technology.


GS III: Science and Technology

Dimensions of the Article:

  1. GAGAN Satellite Technology: GPS Aided GEO Augmented Navigation
  2. Performance-Based Navigation (PBN)

GAGAN Satellite Technology: GPS Aided GEO Augmented Navigation

  • GAGAN is jointly developed by ISRO (Indian Space Research Organisation) and the Airports Authority of India (AAI).
  • Utilizes a network of ground stations to enhance the GPS standard positioning service (SPS) navigation signal.
  • Provides necessary augmentations to enhance accuracy, availability, and integrity for reliable GPS navigation throughout all flight phases.
  • Enables users to depend on GPS for various aviation operations.
  • Enhances position reporting accuracy, contributing to improved Air Traffic Management (ATM).
  • Extends benefits to other modes of transportation, including maritime, highways, and railroads.
Space-Based Augmentation Systems:
  • GAGAN is one of the four Space-Based augmentation systems available globally.
  • Other systems include WAAS (US), EGNOS (Europe), and MSAS (Japan).

Performance-Based Navigation (PBN):

  • PBN concept specifies performance requirements for aircraft RNAV (Area Navigation) systems.
  • Focuses on accuracy, integrity, availability, continuity, and functionality for specific airspace operations.
  • Shifts from sensor-based to performance-based navigation.
  • Navigation specifications define the performance requirements and allowable navigation sensors and equipment.

-Source: The Hindu

Petroleum Coke (Pet Coke)


Recently, the Union government of India permitted the import of pet coke for making graphite anode material for lithium-ion batteries.


GS I: Geography

Dimensions of the Article:

  1. About Petroleum Coke
  2. Applications

About Petroleum Coke:

  • Petroleum coke, commonly known as petcoke, is a carbon-rich solid material and residual waste extracted from oil refining processes.
  • It is a byproduct formed during the distillation of oil or the extraction of bitumen from tar sands. Petcoke has similar fuel properties to coal and can be burned as a fuel source.
Key Points:
  • Petcoke is a solid residue that remains after oil refining or bitumen extraction.
  • It is spongy in texture and can be used as a fuel similar to coal.
  • Bitumen, found in tar sands, contains a higher number of carbon atoms, and the extraction of these atoms forms petcoke.
  • Petcoke has a high calorific value and is relatively easy to transport and store.
  • When burned, it releases toxic gases such as carbon dioxide, nitrous oxide, mercury, arsenic, chromium, nickel, and hydrogen chloride.
  • Calcinable or Green Petcoke: This grade can undergo further processing, known as calcination, to remove impurities and enhance its properties for specific applications.
  • Fuel Grade Petcoke: This grade is primarily used as a fuel source in various industries.


  • Power stations: Petcoke is used as a fuel source in power plants to generate electricity.
  • Cement industry: It is used as a fuel and as a source of carbon in the production of cement.
  • Steel industry: Petcoke is used as a fuel and as a reducing agent in the production of steel.
  • Textile plants: It can be used as a fuel in textile manufacturing processes.

June 2024